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Family Cicadidae - Cicadas

Tibicen lyricen adult - Neotibicen lyricen - female cicada - Megatibicen dorsatus Cicada - Neotibicen tibicen Cicaca - Neotibicen tibicen When Molting Goes Wrong - Magicicada septendecim Tibicen - Neotibicen canicularis  Cicada  - Neotibicen linnei Cicada - Neotibicen linnei
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Hemiptera (True Bugs, Cicadas, Hoppers, Aphids and Allies)
Suborder Auchenorrhyncha (Free-living Hemipterans)
Superfamily Cicadoidea (Cicadas, Leafhoppers, and Treehoppers)
Family Cicadidae (Cicadas)
Other Common Names
Locusts, Harvestfly, Jarfly, chicharra (Spanish), cigale (French) Zhi Liao (Chinese)
Pronunciation
There are several correct pronunciations for the name of this insect, including the following:
(sə-ˈkā-də, sə-ˈkä-də; sī-ˈkā-də)

suh-KAY-duh (sə-ˈkā-də), plural cicadas, also cicadae
AUSTRALIA, CANADA & USA (usu. northern regions of US)

suh-KAH-duh (sə-ˈkä-də)
UK, CAN & USA (southern & western regions of the US)
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Moulds (2005) proposed a new higher taxonomy that has been almost universally accepted, per Allen Sanborn (Barry University, Florida), pers. comm. 2008.
Explanation of Names
Type genus of this family is Old World Cicada, directly from Latin cicada, said to mean "buzzer" (Wikipedia--Cicada). At any rate, the Latin word is onomatopoeic.
Numbers
currently 170 species and 21 subspecies of cicadas n. of Mex. (1)
The taxa are distributed among 16 genera, eight tribes, and three subfamilies within the family Cicadidae (2)
Size
25mm - 50mm
Identification
In eastern North America, two groups are easily separated:
1-Periodical Cicadas are Magicicada species. These typically have dark bodies, brown-veined wings, and bright red eyes. They emerge in huge numbers in either 13-year or 17-year cycles. Genus Okanagana is in the same subfamily, does not (?) have red eyes, and does not (?) have mass emergences.
2-"Annual" Cicadas: several genera, not necessarily closely related. Life cycles two or three years, do not emerge in synchrony. These include Tibicen, Neocicada, Platypedia, etc.
Range
widely dist. across North America
Habitat
Typically deciduous forests but also grasslands
Season
Adults active primarily from May to October
Food
Immature stages live underground, feeding on plant roots ranging from trees to grasses
Life Cycle
Males sing loudly during the day to attract mates
Remarks
Despite their numbers and large size, cicadas do little damage to crops or trees. Unfortunately this means that there has been not so much attention paid to this group
Print References
Arnett (3)
Sanborn, A.F. and M.S. Heath. 2012. Catalogue of the Cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadoidea: Cicadidae) of Continental North America North of Mexico. Thomas Say Publications in Entomology: Mongraphs.; Entomological Society of America, Lanham, MD. 227 pp. (1)
Sanborn, A.F., and P.K. Phillips. 2013. Biogeography of the Cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) of North America, North of Mexico. Diversity 5: 166–239. (2)
Moulds, M.S., 2005. An appraisal of the higher classification of cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadoidea) with special reference to the Australian fauna. Records of the Australian Museum 57(3): 375–446. abstract, full text
Internet References
Cicadas of Michigan--family description, key
Cicadas of Florida--excellent description of life histories, sound production
Singing Insects of North America--North American Cicadas
Phillips, P.K. & A.F. Sanborn. 2007. Phytogeography influences biogeography of the Cicadidae. Acta Zoologica Sinica 53(3): 454-462. abstract, full text. This is an intensive multi-year study of the cicadas of Big Bend National Park in west Texas.
Cicada Checklist of Texas - Texas Entomology
Univ. Florida ENY 3005--Cicadidae
Selected North American Cicada Species--Dr. Chris Simon, includes discussions of taxonomy, life cycles
Singing Insects of North America (SINA): Checklist of Cicadas North of Mexico--species list, with many common names;cicada songs
Works Cited
1.Catalogue of the Cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadoidea: Cicadidae) of Continental North America North of Mexico.
Sanborn, A.F. and M.S. Heath. 2012. Thomas Say Publications in Entomology: Mongraphs.; Entomological Society of America, Lanham, MD. 227 pp.
2.Biogeography of the Cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) of North America, North of Mexico.
Sanborn, A.F., and P.K. Phillips. 2013. Diversity 5: 166–239.
3.American Insects: A Handbook of the Insects of America North of Mexico
Ross H. Arnett. 2000. CRC Press.