Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Zanclognatha (Lederer, 1857)
Zanclognatha was lumped with the Eurasian genus Polypogon by Poole (1989), then split from Polypogon by Fibiger & Hacker (1991), and reinstated as a valid genus by Poole again (1996). The recent European checklist by Nowacki & Fibiger (1998) treats both Zanclognatha and Polypogon as valid genera, and Lafontaine & Troubridge (in press, July 2005) recommend retaining Zanclognatha as a separate genus, based on structural differences listed under "Identification" and "See also" sections below.
As of 2013, thirteen Zanclognatha
species are found in America north of Mexico. (1)(2)(3)
Zanclognatha lituralis (Hübner, 1818)
Zanclognatha theralis (Walker, 1859) - syn. Z. deceptricalis (Zeller, 1873), syn. Z. gypsalis (Grote, 1880), syn. Z. inconspicualis (Grote, 1883)
(of authors, not Smith, 1895) - No longer considered a species (1)
Zanclognatha laevigata (Grote, 1872)
Zanclognatha atrilineella (Grote, 1873)
Zanclognatha obscuripennis (Grote, 1872)
Zanclognatha pedipilalis (Guenée, 1854)
Zanclognatha protumnusalis (Walker, 1859)
Zanclognatha martha (Barnes, 1928)
Zanclognatha cruralis (Guenée, 1854)
Zanclognatha marcidilinea (Grote, 1872) - syn. Z. jacchusalis of authors, not (Walker, 1859)
Zanclognatha jacchusalis (Walker, 1859) - syn. Z. ochreipennis (Grote, 1872), ssp. Z. j. lutalba (Smith, 1906), ssp. Z. j. bryanti (Barnes, 1928)
Zanclognatha lutalba (Smith, 1906)
(Wagner & McCabe, 2011) (3)
uniformly-colored wings range from pale to dark; several species have a thin straight line running from wingtip to wingtip - a Zanclognatha trait; at rest, the triangular forewings are held flat in a swept-back position with the inner margins touching, giving the moth a "stealth bomber" appearance
labial palpi of Zanclognatha species are upturned with the apical segment slender and blade-like; male antenna has distinctive swelling or "knot" of enlarged scales and/or segments characteristic of many herminiine genera; antenna is slightly bead-like with a long seta on each side of each segment; tarsus is reduced with the apical segments projecting out from under the tibial hood; male valve has one or two additional processes projecting from the dorsal margin of the valve [adapted from Lafontaine & Troubridge, 2005]
represented coast to coast in North America but most species concentrated in the east
usually found in wooded areas on or near the forest floor
adults fly from May to September
Individuals fly weakly a short distance when flushed, and if approached slowly will usually remain stationary; due to low light levels in the forest and intervening leaves and twigs, getting acceptable photos can be a challenge.
Genus description, species descriptions, key to species, etc.
(Many submissions in the Guide refer to this key but caution should be used as species have been revised and some descriptions are no longer valid) - Forbes, 1954. Memoir: Number 329 - Lepidoptera of New York and Neighboring States, Part III, 395(4)
The Eurasian genus Polypogon differs from Zanclognatha in the following ways: labial palpi directed forward (rather than upturned) with ragged fringe of scales on dorsal surface of apical segment; male antenna bipectinate and lacks "knot" of enlarged scales; male valve bilobed with lightly sclerotized dorsal lobe and tapered ventral lobe; uncus relatively simple (laterally flattened near base but more inflated toward tip, with an apical spine); vesica has many pouches and is covered with patches of conical spines [adapted from Lafontaine & Troubridge, 2005]
Fibiger, M., and H. Hacker. 1991. Systematic list of the Noctuidae of Europe. Esperiana, 2: 1-109.
Lafontaine, D., and J. Troubridge. 2005. Taxonomic notes on North American Noctuidae 2: The Polypogon group of genera. (in press, July 2005)
Nowacki, J., and M. Fibiger. 1998. Noctuidae. pp. 251-293. In Karsholt, O., and J. Razowski. The Lepidoptera of Europe. A distributional checklist. 380 pp. Stenstrup: Apollo Books.
Poole, R.W. 1989. Lepidopterorum Catalogus (New Series).
Fascicle 118 Noctuidae, Parts 1–3: xii + 1-1314. New York: E.J. Brill.(5)
Poole, R. W. 1996. Nomina Insecta Nearctica. A Checklist of the Insects of North America. Volume 3: Diptera, Lepidoptera, Siphonaptera. E.I.S., Rockville, MD. 1143 pp.
David L. Wagner, Timothy L. McCabe, 2011. A new Zanclognatha from eastern North America and a preliminary key to the larvae of the genus...
ZooKeys 149: 89-101 (24 Nov 2011)(3)
Smith, J. B., 1895. Contributions Toward A Monograph Of The Insects Of The Lepidopterous Family Noctuidae Of Boreal North America. A Revision Of The Deltoid Moths.
Bulletin of the United States National Museum., 48: 57 (6)
Images and Info
at Barcoding Life
Pinned Adult Images
of the 12 species in eastern Canada (CBIF)
Pinned Adult Images
of the 5 species in western Canada (CBIF)