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Superfamily Chalcidoidea - Chalcid Wasps

wasp Wasp - Brasema rhadinosa - female Torymid from 1 cm red oak apple tiny parasitic wasp with large head Torymid from Virginia creeper petiole gall - Torymus - female Eulophid parasitoid of bunchberry-mining Phytomyza Frit Fly Perhaps ? Wasp
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Hymenoptera (Ants, Bees, Wasps and Sawflies)
No Taxon ("Parasitica" (parasitic Apocrita))
Superfamily Chalcidoidea (Chalcid Wasps)
Other Common Names
"Chalcid" is usually used to refer to any member of this superfamily, rather than only members of the family Chalcididae. Using "chalcidoid" instead removes any ambiguity.
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
for changes suggested based on a recent phylogenetic analysis see(1)
Numbers
>2000 spp. in ~470 genera of 18 families in our area; estimated >500,000 spp. worldwide, of which a mere 22,000 so far described; 19 families with >90 subfamilies currently recognized(2)(3)
Size
0.1-20 mm, avg. 1.5 mm, usually under 3 mm(2)(3)
Identification
Antennae usually elbowed, never more than 13 segments.
Most are dark colored, some metallic green or blue. Clear winged.
They generally hold their wings flat over the abdomen.
Online key to families in(4)

Overview of Families





     
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Images needed


Food
most parasitize eggs or immature stages of other insects or arachnids; others feed on plant tissues of stems, leaves, seeds, or flowers, or make galls(2)
Remarks
Life history summarized in(5)(3)
Some are used to control insect pests (Lepidoptera, Diptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera). The males of many species produce sounds.
Internet References
Chalcidoidea In Catalan, with excellent pictures
Works Cited
1.A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera)
Heraty J.M., Burks R.A., Cruaud A., Gibson G.A.P., Liljeblad J., Munro J., Rasplus J.-Y., Delvare G., Janšta P., Gumovsky A.... 2013. Cladistics 29: 466–542.
2.The families and subfamilies of Canadian Chalcidoid wasps
C.M. Yoshimoto. 1984. The insects and arachnids of Canada, Pt. 12. Ottawa: Agric. Canada. 149 pp.
3.Universal Chalcidoidea Database
4.Handbook of Nearctic Chalcidoidea
5.A handbook of the families of Nearctic Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). 2nd Edition
E.E. Grissell & M. E. Schauff. 1997. Entomological Society of Washington. 87pp.