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Family Curculionidae - Snout and Bark Beetles

Metallic green snout beetle - Polydrusus formosus Scolytini #3 - Monarthrum fasciatum Nut and Acorn Weevil - Curculio Mesagroicus hispidus - Mesagroicus Desmoglyptus arizonicus Casey - Desmoglyptus arizonicus Snout Beetle?? - Heilipus apiatus Small Beetle - Cyrtepistomus castaneus Data — N. leucoloma - Naupactus leucoloma
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Coleoptera (Beetles)
Suborder Polyphaga (Water, Rove, Scarab, Long-horned, Leaf and Snout Beetles)
Superfamily Curculionoidea (Snout and Bark Beetles)
Family Curculionidae (Snout and Bark Beetles)
Other Common Names
Weevils
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Treated here [following(1)] to exclude Nemonychidae, Attelabidae, Brentidae, and Ithyceridae [treated under Curculionidae in(2)] and to include Scolytinae, Platypodinae, Erirhininae, and Dryophthorinae; the current trend is treat the last two as separate families(3), while the status of Scolytinae & Platypodinae as parts of Curculionidae seems settled
Explanation of Names
Scientific name is from the Latin curculio 'a corn worm'
weevil: from Old English wifel, akin to German Wiebel and Lithuanian vabalas 'beetle'; from Indo-European root *webh- 'to weave, move quickly' (Online Etymology Dictionary)
Numbers
Arguably, the largest animal family with more than 40,000 species worldwide and 2,500 spp. in ~480 genera of 19 subfamilies in our area (Staphylinidae and/or Ichneumonidae may turn out more speciose.)
Overview of our fauna (DRAFT):
Family CURCULIONIDAE
Taxa not yet in the guide: (*) native, (+) non-native.
Subfamily Dryophthorinae
   Subtribe Orthognathina Orthognathus
   Subtribe Rhinostomina Yuccaborus
   Subtribe Litosomina Sitophilus
Subfamily Erirhininae
Tribe Erirhinini
   Subtribe Tanysphyrina Tanysphyrus
Subfamily Raymondionyminae
Subfamily Curculioninae
Tribe Ellescini
   Subtribe Ellescina Ellescus, Proctorus
   Subtribe Dorytomina Dorytomus
Tribe Tychiini
   Subtribe Tychiina Sibinia, Tychius
   Subtribe Lignyodina Lignyodes, Plocetes
   Subtribe Ochyromerina Ochyromera
   Unassigned: Macrorhoptus
Subfamily Baridinae
Tribe Madarini
   Subtribe Tonesiina Myctides
   Subtribe Torcina Sibariops
Subfamily Ceutorhynchinae
Subfamily Conoderinae
Subfamily Cossoninae
Tribe Rhyncolini
   Subtribe Phloeophagina Phloeophagus
Subfamily Cryptorhynchinae
Subfamily Cyclominae
   Subtribe Emphyastina Emphyastes
Subfamily Entiminae
Tribe Omiini Omias
Tribe Tanymecini
Subfamily Lixinae
Subfamily Mesoptiliinae
Subfamily Molytinae
Tribe Molytini
Tribe Cholini
   Subtribe +Cholina +Cholus[img]
   Subtribe Rhinastina Neoerethistes
Unassigned: +Tranes [img]
Subfamily Scolytinae
Tribe Hylesinini
   Subtribe Phloeotribina Phloeotribus
Tribe Scolytini
   Subtribe Scolytina Cnemonyx, Scolytus
   Subtribe Cactopinina Cactopinus
Subfamily Platypodinae
Size
1-35 mm (usually 5-15 mm)
Identification
most have a well-developed downward-curved snout (rostrum); antennae elbowed, clubbed, and the first segment often fits into a groove in the side of the snout
Good old keys, still useful mutatis mutandis, can be found in(4)
Range
throughout the world
Food
most larvae and adults occur and feed on all parts of plants, and many species are important pests because they chew holes in fruits, nuts, and other parts of cultivated plants (see, e.g.,(5))
Remarks
Adults often play dead when disturbed (by lying motionless on their back)
See Also
Members of many non-weevil families also have rostrate heads, e.g.:
-- there must be others as well...
Print References
(6)(7)
Internet References
(8) (photos of Alsatian weevils by Claude Schott; many of these now occur in NA)
Works Cited
1.American Beetles, Volume II: Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea
Arnett, R.H., Jr., M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley and J. H. Frank. (eds.). 2002. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, FL.
2.The Beetles of Northeastern North America, Vol. 1 and 2.
Downie, N.M., and R.H. Arnett. 1996. The Sandhill Crane Press, Gainesville, FL.
3.Franz et al. (2012-) Weevils of North America (WoNA)
4.Rhynchophora or Weevils of North Eastern America
Blatchley and Leng. 1916. Nature Publishing Co., Indianapolis, Indiana. 682 pp.
5.Weevils attacking fruit trees in Washington
E.H. Beers et al. 2003. Proceedings of the 77th Annual Western Orchard Pest & Disease Management Conference, Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA.
6.A catalog of Coleoptera of America North of Mexico. Curculionidae: Acicnemidinae, Cossoninae, Rhytirrhininae, Molytinae...
C.W. O'Brien. 1997. USDA Agriculture handbook no. 529-143g. 49 pp.
7.A catalog of Coleoptera of America north of Mexico. Curculionidae: Erirhininae
O'Brien C.W., Anderson D.M. 1996. USDA Agriculture handbook no. 529-143f. 40 pp.
8.Schott C. Les coléoptères Curculionoidea d'Alsace