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Family Pteromalidae - Pteromalids

Pteromalidae? wasp Lepidopteran Parasites Adult Wasp on Spider Egg Sac Tiny Aphid Parasitic Wasp - Pachyneuron Pteromalidae? Ormyrus - dare I say - vacciniicola? - female Tiny Wasp
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Hymenoptera (Ants, Bees, Wasps and Sawflies)
No Taxon ("Parasitica" (parasitic Apocrita))
Superfamily Chalcidoidea (Chalcid Wasps)
Family Pteromalidae (Pteromalids)
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
probably polyphyletic(1); vaguely defined and rather artificial chalcidoid assemblage: for example, it does not have the enlarged metafemora of the Chalcididae (except Chalcedectini), it does not have the quadrate (rectangular) pronotum of the Eurytomidae (except Spalanginae), it does not have the exserted ovipositor of the Torymidae (except for 2 genera)... (2)
*Epichrysomallinae recently transferred to Pteromalidae; Cratominae & Panstenoninae sunk into Pteromalinae(3)
Numbers
close to 600 spp. in >200 genera of 18 subfamilies in our area, ca. 3500 spp. in almost 600 genera worldwide placed in ~30 subfamilies(1) [38 taxa recognized as subfamilies by different workers are briefly discussed in(4)]
Food
Parasites on a wide variety of hosts.
Some are hyperparasitoids.
The adults of some species feed on the body fluids of the host, after puncturing it with the ovipositor.
Life Cycle
Remarks
Some used as biocontrols
Internet References
Works Cited
1.Universal Chalcidoidea Database
2.A handbook of the families of Nearctic Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). 2nd Edition
E.E. Grissell & M. E. Schauff. 1997. Entomological Society of Washington. 87pp.
3.A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera)
Heraty J.M., Burks R.A., Cruaud A., Gibson G.A.P., Liljeblad J., Munro J., Rasplus J.-Y., Delvare G., Janšta P., Gumovsky A.... 2013. Cladistics 29: 466–542.
4.Hymenoptera of the world: an identification guide to families
Goulet H., Huber J., eds. 1993. Agriculture Canada Publication 1894/E. 668 pp.
5.Escolà A.R. (2007-2012) Himenòpters de Ponent