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Family Cerambycidae - Long-horned Beetles

Liopinus alpha - Sternidius alpha Large reddish brown beetle - Prionus californicus - female Cerambycid - black with orange stripes - Strangalepta abbreviata Sternidius alpha Ponderous Borer?   - Trichocnemis spiculatus unknown beetle - Tetraopes tetrophthalmus Beetle? - Hippopsis lemniscata Pseudoxylosteus ornatus
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Coleoptera (Beetles)
Suborder Polyphaga (Water, Rove, Scarab, Long-horned, Leaf and Snout Beetles)
Superfamily Chrysomeloidea (Long-horned and Leaf Beetles)
Family Cerambycidae (Long-horned Beetles)
Other Common Names
Longhorns, Longicorns, Capricorns, Round-headed Borers, Timber Beetles, Sawyer Beetles(1)
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Disteniidae
Explanation of Names
Cerambycidae Latreille 1802
Greek kerambex (κεραμβυξ), a type of horned beetle; may be derived from karabos (καραβοσ) 'beetle' + keras (κερας) 'horn'(2)(3)
Numbers
~1000 spp. in 300+ genera in our area, ~10,300 spp. in almost 1900 genera in the Western Hemisphere and >20,000 spp. worldwide(4)(1)
Overview of our fauna
Classification follows(1), except that we keep the Disteniinae as a subfamily. * –taxa not yet in the guide, with links to Bezark’s Photo Catalog(5) for quick reference. Attention editors: As guide pages for these taxa are added, please replace these links with links to the guide pages.
Family CERAMBYCIDAE
Subfamily DISTENIINAE
Tribe Disteniini Elytrimitatrix
Subfamily PARANDRINAE
Tribe Parandrini Parandra, Neandra
Subfamily PRIONINAE
Subfamily LEPTURINAE
Subfamily SPONDYLIDINAE
Subfamily CERAMBYCINAE
Subfamily LAMIINAE
Size
3-150 mm(4); in our area, 3-60 mm(6)
Identification
Keys and visual guides:
Suprageneric taxa(7)
N. Amer. genera(4)
New World spp.(5)
Eastern US(8)
Western US(9)
Northeastern N. Amer.(10)
Florida(11) (good for most se. US spp.)
Texas (Quinn 2013)
Colorado(12)
N. Dakota(13)
Montana(14)
Nebraska(15)
Range
worldwide from sea level up to 4,200 m elevations, subject to host plant availability(1)
Food
Larval habits: Most species feed within dead, dying or even decaying wood, but some taxa can use living plant tissue. Girdlers (adults of the Onciderini, larvae of genera in the tribes Methiini, Hesperophanini and Elaphidiini) sever living branches or twigs, with the larvae developing within the nutrient-rich distal portion. The larvae of a few species move freely through the soil, feeding externally upon roots or tunneling up under the root crown.(1)
Many adults (esp. the brightly colored ones) feed on flowers.(6) Adult feeding requirements are variable, with some species taking nourishment from sap, leaves, blossoms, fruit, bark, and fungi, often not associated with larval hosts; others take little or no nourishment beyond water(1)
Life Cycle
The life spans in temperate regions typically range from 1 to 3 years, but cycles of 2-3 months to decades have been documented. Most of the lifetime is spent in the larval stage; the adults usually emerge, disperse, reproduce, and die within a few days to months. Cellulose digestion appears to be aided primarily by enzymes rather than symbiotic microorganisms. In many cases, Cerambycidae are primary borers, providing a vital "first step" in the biorecycling of wood.(1)
See Also
Longhorn lookalikes:
Works Cited
1.Checklist of the Oxypeltidae, Vesperidae, Disteniidae and Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of the Western Hemisphere
Bezark L.G., Monné M.A. 2013. 470 pp.
2.Dictionary of Word Roots and Combining Forms
Donald J. Borror. 1960. Mayfield Publishing Company.
3.The Century Dictionary: an encyclopedic lexicon of the English language
4.American Beetles, Volume II: Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea
Arnett, R.H., Jr., M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley and J. H. Frank. (eds.). 2002. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, FL.
5.A Photographic Catalog of the Cerambycidae of the New World
6.Borror and DeLong's Introduction to the Study of Insects
Norman F. Johnson, Charles A. Triplehorn. 2004. Brooks Cole.
7.Nearns et al. (2012-2013) Longicorn ID: Tool for diagnosing cerambycoid families, subfamilies, and tribes
8.Illustrated Key to the Longhorned Woodboring Beetles of the Eastern United States
Steven W. Lingafelter. 2008. Coleopterists Society.
9.LaBonte J.R., Valley S.A., Vlach J., Niwa C. (2013) Screening aid for the Cerambycidae of the western U.S.A. Version 061313
10.Field Guide to Northeastern Longhorned Beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
Douglas Yanega. 1996. Illinois Natural History Survey.
11.Thomas M.C., Hill S., Morris R.F., Nearns G. () The Cerambycidae of Florida
12.A survey of the Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) or longhorned beetles of Colorado
Heffern, DJ. 1998. Fort Collins.
13.Cerambycidae of North Dakota
Guy A. Hanley. 2005. Minot State University.
14.A checklist of the Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of Montana with distribution maps
Hart C.J., Cope J.S., Ivie M.A. 2013. Coleopterists Bulletin 67: 133-148.
15.The longhorn beetles (Cerambycidae) of Nebraska: New state records, a checklist of known species, and distribution maps.
Stephen M. Spomer. 2014. The Coleopterists Bulletin 68(2): 297-315.