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Species Tabanus atratus - Black Horse Fly

Black Horse Fly = Tabanus atratus? - Tabanus atratus - female Unknown Fly - Tabanus atratus - female GIANT fly - what is this? - Tabanus atratus Gigantic Black Fly - Tabanus atratus Large black furry fly - Tabanus atratus - male Ovipositing Black Horse Fly - Tabanus atratus - female Big Fly - Tabanus atratus - male id of a black fly - Tabanus atratus
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Diptera (Flies)
No Taxon (Orthorrhapha)
Infraorder Tabanomorpha
Family Tabanidae (Horse and Deer Flies)
Subfamily Tabaninae (Horse Flies)
Tribe Tabanini
Genus Tabanus
Species atratus (Black Horse Fly)
Other Common Names
mourning horse-fly (1)
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Tabanus atratus Fabricius, 1775
Explanation of Names
atratus - Latin for 'clothed in black' (2)
Numbers
one of 107 spp. in genus Tabanus n. of Mex.
Size
Adult: 20-25 mm (Long 2001); 20-28 mm (3) (4) (very large)
Identification
Adult black, including wings, or nearly black, brown-purple. Prominent mouth parts. As in other Tabanus, male eyes meet in middle (holoptic); female eys are separated (dichoptic):
    -

Larva white to tan, similar to other tabanids, with twelve segments and retractable tracheal siphon for respiration (Long 2001). (Another reference (5) states that larva has striking appearance, whitish, banded with black, up to 50 mm long.)
Range
TX-FL-ME-ND / se. Can. / n. Mex (6)
Primarily found in eastern United States, although it has been collected throughout continental US. (Long 2001)
Habitat
Very wide range of habitats; generally near aquatic environments (Long 2001). Requires moist environments in which to lay eggs, and mammals to feed on (Long 2001). Larvae live "along the margins of ponds and ditches" (7).
Season
Apr-Dec in TX & FL (BG data)
Food
Females feed on mammalian blood; males, which lack mandibles, feed on nectar and plant juices (Long 2001). Especially prone to attack cattle and other livestock (1) (5).
Life Cycle
Eggs laid on vegetation overhanging permanent water (3):
   
Larvae require two years to complete life-cycle (4)(5); adult males short-lived; females survive through fall (4).
Remarks
Does not often bite humans but leaves painful memories when it does. Can transmit bacterial, viral, and other diseases such as surra and anthrax, to humans and other animals through its bite. (Long 2001)
The effect on livestock can be a serious problem. Blood loss and irritation from the flies can severely affect beef and milk production, as well as grazing. Livestock usually have no way of avoiding the painful bites, and millions of dollars have been spent trying to control these pests. (Long 2001)
Print References
Arnett, p. 871--description (8)
Comstock, p. 306 (1) (BHL link)
Eaton and Kaufman, pp. 284-285, (photos male and female) (9)
Evans, p. 236 (3)
Marshall, photos 443.6, 443.7 (male and female) (7)
Milne and Milne, plate 427, p. 653 (description) (4)
Swan and Papp, pp. 604-605, fig. 1288 (5)
Internet References
Long, W. 2001. "Tabanus atratus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 23, 2012 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Tabanus_atratus.html
Works Cited
1.Coenosia
2.Dictionary of Word Roots and Combining Forms
Donald J. Borror. 1960. Mayfield Publishing Company.
3.National Wildlife Federation Field Guide to Insects and Spiders & Related Species of North America
Arthur V. Evans. 2007. Sterling.
4.National Audubon Society Field Guide to Insects and Spiders
Lorus and Margery Milne. 1980. Knopf.
5.The Common Insects of North America
Lester A. Swan, Charles S. Papp. 1972. Harper & Row.
6.The horse and deer flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Texas
Goodwin and Drees. 1996. 1996. Southwestern Entomological Society.
7.Insects: Their Natural History And Diversity: With a Photographic Guide to Insects of Eastern North America
Stephen A. Marshall. 2006. Firefly Books Ltd.
8.American Insects: A Handbook of the Insects of America North of Mexico
Ross H. Arnett. 2000. CRC Press.
9.Kaufman Field Guide to Insects of North America
Eric Eaton, Kenn Kaufman. 2006. Houghton Mifflin.