associated with pines (or other trees), sometimes found on flowers; uncommonly seen
Larvae feed chiefly on male pine cones, new pine shoots, new buds of deciduous trees (2); Xyela --staminate cones of pine, Pleroneura, Xylecia --buds and shoots of firs, other spp. --hickory and elm(3)
A small relict family well represented in the fossil record since the Triassic
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