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Family Salticidae - Jumping Spiders

Unknown Jumping Spider - Sitticus fasciger salticid - Tutelina small jumping spider - Phidippus putnami Phidippus johnsoni ? - Phidippus Jumping Spider - Phidippus arizonensis - female M. morosus male - Mexigonus morosus - male Salticid - male Salticid - Phidippus clarus
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Chelicerata (Chelicerates)
Class Arachnida (Arachnids)
Order Araneae (Spiders)
Infraorder Araneomorphae (True Spiders)
No Taxon (Entelegynes )
Family Salticidae (Jumping Spiders)
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Maddison’s 2015 Phylogenetic Classification - An Overview
Historically, jumping spiders have been classified in a Linnaean hierarchical structure on the basis of morphological characters. In the early 1900s, Eugène Simon adopted this methodology using cheliceral dentition and body shape; subsequently in the 1970s, Prószyński’s applied genitalic characteristics to a Linnaean structure. While Simon’s schema was hampered by the fact that many groups of unrelated jumping spiders have similar body shapes, convergent evolution has limited Prószyński’s approach as different species may also have similar genitalic characters.
By the turn of the century, molecular phylogenetics was being applied to salticid classification. Molecular analysis is used to test various kinship hypotheses; the resulting data suggest/confirm groups that best fit the assumptions of cladistics.* This methodology in combination with descriptive and interpretive taxonomy, as well as accessible and comprehensive online libraries and catalogs, has resulted in the most recent advances in salticid classification. It is worth repeating that this new schema is a synthesis based on field records, traditional laboratory taxonomy, and molecular analysis. As Maddison makes clear, “The groups discovered by molecular data have coherence in general body form, in genitalia, and in geographical distribution.”
Maddison’s 2015 publication draws on these efforts to construct the outlines, if not all the details, of a ground breaking structure for a phylogenetic classification of salticids. With a focus on groupings above genera, his classification defines salticid subfamilies, tribes, and subtribes within larger clades.
*Briefly, cladistics uses shared derived characteristics (synapomorphies) to define a clade = an ancestor and all its descendants. Thus, a classification system employing cladistic analysis tells us something about the evolutionary history of the organisms involved.
Two examples elucidate the usefulness of cladistic analysis.
. . . it was long said that the orb-weaving spiders, with their intricate and orderly webs, had evolved from spiders with cobweb-like webs. The cladistic analysis of these spiders showed that, in fact, orb-weaving was the primitive state, and that cobweb-weaving had evolved from spiders with more orderly webs. (http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/clad/clad5.html)
Another example of the fruits of this methodology add insights into the worldwide distribution of jumping spiders. Biogeographers have long noted that closely related species are generally found in discrete areas - e.g. each continental land mass has a characteristic jumping spider fauna. Salticid clades defined by molecular analysis reflect this same general pattern of distribution.** This, in turn, supports the hypothesis that salticid evolution and radiation occurred after the breakup of Pangaea. See Hill and Edwards, 2013 for interesting details of the origins and distribution of North American jumping spiders.
**Exceptions to the rule do occur and lead to additional hypotheses regarding distribution (e.g. Habronattus spiders are part of an Old World group).
Numbers
The largest family of spiders, with >315 species in 63 genera in our region(1) and >5,000 species described worldwide.
Identification
Anterior median eyes (the pair of eyes in the center front) are comparatively very large and give these spiders excellent color vision and high degree of resolution. The shape of the retinae appears to give the spider telephoto vision (2). See diagram of a typical arrangement of eyes in this family:

Guide using field markings
Range
Worldwide
Remarks
Overview of our fauna:
Family SALTICIDAE
Subfamily Lyssomaninae
Genus (1) Lyssomanes viridis
Subfamily Salticinae
Clade Amycoida
Tribe Gophoini
Genus (3) Colonus hesperus   puerperus
sylvanus

Tribe Sitticini
Genus (14) Sitticus ammophilus   concolor   dorsatus

fasciger   finschi   floricola palustris
  pubescens   sylvestris
Tribe Thiodinini
Genus (2) Bredana alternata   complicata

Tribe Sarindini
Genus (2) Sarinda hentzi

Genus (1) Zuniga cf laeta

Tribe Simonellini
Genus (2) Synemosyna formica petrunkevitchi

Clade Salticoida: Astioida
Tribe Myrmarachnini
Genus (1) Myrmarachne formicaria

Tribe Neonini
Genus (6) Neon avalonus nelli
pixii reticulatus

Clade Salticoida: Marpissoida
Tribe Dendryphantini
Subtribe Dendryphantina
Genus (1) (1) Bagheera prosper

Genus (1) (1) Beata wickhami

Genus (4) Eris flava floridana
militaris rufa

Genus (4) Ghelna canadensis

Genus (7) Hentzia chekika grenada mitrata
palmarum

Genus (1) Messua limbata

Genus (7) Metaphidippus chera manni

Genus (3) Paraphidippus aurantius basalis

Genus (26) Pelegrina aeneola exigua
flaviceps flavipes
galathea insignis
pervaga proterva
tillandsiae

Genus (8) Phanias albeolus concoloratus
harfordi watonus

Genus (48) Phidippus
. audax group audax princeps
pulcherrimus workmani

. cardinalis group cardinalis clarus
tux

. insignarius group adumbratus carneus
insignarius phoenix
tyrrellii

. johnsoni group cryptus johnsoni

whitmani
. mystaceus group arizonensis asotus
mystaceus

. octopunctatus group octopunctatus

. otiosus group californicus otiosus
pius regius

. purpuratus group apacheanus ardens
borealis nikites
purpuratus texanus

. putnami group carolinensis comatus
putnami richmani

Genus (2) Poultonella alboimmaculata

Genus (1) Rhetenor texanus

Genus (4) Sassacus cyaneus papenhoei vitis

Genus (7) Terralonus californicus

Genus (4) Tutelina elegans formicaria harti
similis undescribed sp.

Genus (3) Zygoballus nervosus rufipes
sexpunctatus

Subtribe Marpissina
Genus (6) Maevia inclemens michelsoni
poultoni undescribed sp.

Genus (10) Marpissa bina formosa grata
lineata obtusa
pikei robusta

Genus (3, 1 subsp.) Metacyrba floridana punctata
taeniola

Genus (3) Platycryptus californicus undatus

Subtribe Synagelina
Genus (3) [i]Admestina tibialis wheeleri

Genus (4) Attidops cinctipes cutleri youngi

Genus (2) Cheliferoides longimanus segmentatus

Genus (4) Peckhamia americana picata

Genus (8) Synageles bishopi noxiosus occidentalis
venator

Clade Salticoida: Saltafresia
Tribe Hasariini
Genus (1) Chinattus parvulus

Genus (1) Hasarius adansoni

Tribe Chrysillini
Genus (1) Hakka himeshimensis

Genus (1) Marchena minuta

Genus (1) Menemerus bivittatus semilimbatus

Tribe Leptorchestini
Genus (3) Paramarpissa

Tribe Europhryini
Genus (1) Anasaitis canosa

Genus (4) Chalcoscirtus diminutus

Genus (1) Euophrys monadnock

Genus (3) Mexigonus minutus morosus

Genus (4) Naphrys acerba pulex xerophila

Genus (2) Pseudeuophrys erratica
Genus (1) Talavera minuta

Tribe Salticini
Genus Salticus austinensis palpalis peckhamae
scenicus
Tribe Aelurillini
Subtribe Aelurillina
Genus Phlegra hentzi
Subtribe Freyina
Genus Leptofreya ambigua

Tribe Plexippini
Subtribe Harmochirina

. agilis group agilis alachua cognatus
conjunctus elegans georgiensis
mataxus peckhami

. americanus group americanus mustaciata ophrys
sansoni tarsalis

. amicus group amicus signatus ustulatus

. clypeatus group californicus clypeatus dossenus
formosus forticulus arcalorus

. coecatus group ballatoris borealis
brunneus captiosus
coecatus cuspidatus festus
klauserii mexicanus pyrrithrix
sabulosus schlingeri
virgulatus

. decorus group carolinensis decorus ocala

. tranquillus group hirsutus tranquillus

. viridipes group calcaratus jucundus moratus
notialis orbus
trimaculatus viridipes

. Incertae Sedis fallax hallani icenoglei
oregonensis pugillis texanus
altanus luminosus

Genus Pellenes longimanus wrighti

Subtribe Plexippina
Genus Evarcha hoyi proszynskii

Genus Plexippus paykulli
See Also
Some Fruit Flies mimic salticids
Print References
(3)(4)
Internet References
The Peckham Society - images, links, PDFs of many papers, and home to the journal Peckhamia
Family profile (Newton 2004-2008)
Works Cited
1.Spiders of North America: An Identification Manual
D. Ubick, P. Paquin, P.E. Cushing and V. Roth (eds). 2005. American Arachnological Society.
2.Florida's Fabulous Spiders
Sam Marshall, G. B. Edwards. 2002. World Publications.
3.Revision of the Jumping Spiders of the Genus Phidippus (Araneae: Salticidae)
G. B. Edwards, Ph.D. 2003. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
4.Jumping spiders of Canada
Buddle C.M., Shorthouse D.P. 2000. Newsletter of the Biological Survey of Canada (Terrestrial Arthropods) 19: 16-18.