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Genus Andrena

Bee - Andrena - female bee - Andrena dunningi - female Bee on dandelion - Andrena Andrena - Andrena frigida Andrena? - Andrena Frigid Andrena - Andrena Bee - Andrena rugosa Bee - Andrena vicina
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Hymenoptera (Ants, Bees, Wasps and Sawflies)
No Taxon (Aculeata - Ants, Bees and Stinging Wasps)
No Taxon (Anthophila (Apoidea) - Bees)
Family Andrenidae (Mining Bees)
Subfamily Andreninae (Mining Bees)
Genus Andrena
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Andrena Fabricius, 1775
Explanation of Names
From Greek anthrene (ανθρηνη) 'hornet/wasp'; related Greek words originally referred to any buzzing insect. (English drone is related to Greek threnos 'dirge')(1)
Numbers
>450 spp. in 47 subgenera in our area, >1,500 spp. in 100 subgenera worldwide(2)
Subgenera not yet in the guide:
Anchandrena: 2 spp., both in our area(2)
Aporandrena: monotypic subgenus(2)
Augandrena: 3 spp., all in our area(2)
Cremnandrena: monotypic subgenus(2)
Dasyandrena: 3 spp., all in our area(2)
Derandrena: 9 spp., all in our area(2)
Geissandrena: monotypic subgenus(2)
Genyandrena: 2 spp., both in our area(2)
Iomelissa: monotypic subgenus(2)
Nemandrena: 3 spp., all in our area(2)
Notandrena: 2 spp. in our area, 20 spp. total(2)
Oligandrena: 2 spp., both in our area(2)
Onagrandrena: 22 spp., all in our area(2)
Oxyandrena: monotypic subgenus(2)
Parandrena: 9 spp. in our area, 15 spp. total(2)
Pelicandrena: monotypic subgenus(2)
Psammandrena: 2 spp., both in our area(2)
Scaphandrena: 24 spp., all in our area(2)
Scoliandrena: 2 spp., both in our area(2)
Scrapteropsis: 19 spp., all in our area(2)
Xiphandrena: monotypic subgenus(2)
Identification
They have facial foveae. This describes the pale bands of hair along the inside margins of the eyes. Actually, the facial foveae are the 'grooves' in the face from which those hairs emanate. Wings with 3 submarginal cells.


OVERVIEW OF SUBGENERA

       





       


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Range
Mostly northern hemisphere; absent from South America and Australia (map)(2)
Season
Most species fly in spring, but others fly in the summer, autumn, and a few even in winter
Life Cycle
Males of many spp. (e.g. A. imitatrix) fly in large numbers about the tips of tree branches in early spring looking for females.
Remarks
Identification to species level usually requires an expert.
Andrena are more active than Apis at lower temperatures. For this and other reasons Andrena (and Osmia) can be, on a per bee basis, superior pollinators in cold weather. Some species (e.g. Andrena clarkella) are exceptionally cold tolerant. (Gebhardt & Röhr 1987) (Based on J.S. Ascher's comment of 12.iv.2009)
Print References
Bouseman, J. K., and W. E. LaBerge. 1979. A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere, Part IX: subgenus Melandrena. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 104: 275-389.
Gusenleitner F., and M. Schwarz (2002) Weltweite Checkliste der Bienengattung Andrena mit Bemerkungen und Ergaenzungen zu palaearktischen Arten (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Andrena). Entomofauna Supplement 12: 1-1280. (World catalog)
Gebhardt M., and G. Röhr (1987) Zur Bionomie der Sandbienen Andrena clarkella (Kirby), A. cineraria (L.), A. fuscipes (Kirby) und ihrer Kuckucksbienen. Drosera 87: 89-114.
LaBerge, W. E. 1964. Prodromus of American bees of the genus Andrena. Bulletin of the University of Nebraska State Museum 4: 279-316.

LaBerge, W. E. 1967. A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere, Part I: Callandrena. Bulletin of the University of Nebraska State Museum 7: 1-31.

LaBerge, W. E. 1969. A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere, Part II: Plastandrena, Aporandrena, Charitandrena. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 95: 1-47.

LaBerge, W. E. 1971a. A new subgenus of bees found in California and Oregon. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 47: 47-57.

LaBerge, W. E. 1971b. A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere, Part IV: Scrateropsis, Xiphandrena, and Rhaphandrena. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 97: 441-520.

LaBerge, W. E. 1973. A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere, Part VI: Subgenus Trachandrena. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 99: 235-371.

LaBerge, W. E. 1977. A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere, Part VIII: Subgenera Thysandrena, Dasyandrena, Psammandrena, Rhacandrena, Euandrena, Oxyandrena. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 106: 395-525.

LaBerge, W. E. 1978. Andrena (Callandrena) micheneriana, a remarkable new bee from Arizona and Mexico (Apoidea: Andrenidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 51.

LaBerge, W. E. 1980. A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere. Part X. Subgenus Andrena. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 106: 395-525.

LaBerge, W. E. 1986a. A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere. Part XI. Minor subgenera and subgeneric key. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 111: 441-567.

LaBerge, W. E. 1986b. The zoogeography of Andrena Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Andrenidae) of the western hemisphere. Pp. 110-115. vii + 264 pp., in The Prairie: Past, Present and Future (Proceedings of the Ninth North American Prairie Conference). G. K. Clamby, and R. H. Pemble, Eds. Fargo, North Dakota: Tri-College University Center for Environmental Studies, North Dakota State University.

LaBerge, W. E. 1987. A revision of the bees of the Genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere, Part XII: Subgenera Leucandrena, Ptilandrena, Scoliandrena, and Melandrena. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 112: 191-248.

LaBerge, W. E. 1989. A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere, Part XIII: Subgenera Simandrena and Taeniandrena. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 115: 1-56.

LaBerge, W. E., and J. K. Bouseman. 1970. A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere, Part III: Tylandrena. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 96: 543-605.

LaBerge, W. E., and J. K. Bouseman. 1977. On the systematic position of three black Andrena from western North America (Hymenopter: Andrenidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 50: 601-612.

LaBerge, W. E., and P. D. Hurd, Jr. 1965. A new subgenus and species of matinal Andrena from the flowers of Sicyos (Cucurbitaceae) in Mexico. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 41: 186-193.

LaBerge, W. E., and D. W. Ribble. 1972. A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere, Part V: Gonandrena, Geissandrena, Parandrena, Pelicandrena. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 98: 271-358.

LaBerge, W. E., and D. W. Ribble. 1975. A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere, Part VII: Subgenus Euandrena. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 101: 371-446.

Lanham, U. M. 1980. Some comparative observations on the Andrena faunas of Tunisia and Colorado. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 53: 470-472.

Lanham, U. M. 1981. Some Colorado Andrena of presumed hybrid origin with special reference to the tarsal claws. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 54: 537-546.

Lanham, U. M. 1982. A new species of Andrena (Microandrena) from Colorado, with other notes on the group (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 58: 309-311.

Lanham, U. M. 1984. The hybrid swarm of Andrena in western North America: a possible source for the evolutionary origin of a new species. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 57: 197-208.

Lanham, U. M. 1987. A new species of Andrena at the Micrandrena-Scaphandrena boundary (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 63: 325-327.

Lanham, U. M. 1993. The puzzling case of Andrena perplexa (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 66: 131-132.

Lanham, U. M., and M. J. Weissmann. 1988. Scaphandrena and Elandrena. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 64: 183-184.

Lanham, U. N. 1949. A subgeneric classification of the New World bees of the genus Andrena. University of California Publications in Entomology 8: 183-238.

Ribble, D. W. 1967. The monotypic North American subgenus Larandrena of Andrena (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Bulletin of the University of Nebraska State Museum 6: 27-42.

Ribble, D. W. 1968a. A new subgenus, Belandrena, of the genus Andrena. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 41: 220-236.

Ribble, D. W. 1968b. Revisions of two subgenera of Andrena, Micrandrena Ashmead and Derandrena, new subgenus. Bulletin of the University of Nebraska State Museum 8: 237-394.

Ribble, D. W. 1973. Hybridization between three species of andrenid bees. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 66: 1281-1286.

Ribble, D. W. 1974. A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere. Subgenus Scaphandrena. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 100: 101-189.

Thorp, R. W. 1969. Systematics and ecology of bees of the subgenus Diandrena (Hymenoptera:Andrenidae). University of California Publications in Entomology 52: [iii] + 1-146.