forests of the Northern Hemisphere south to Cuba, n. Central America, India, New Guinea, and n. Africa (2 spp. are known from tropical Africa)(2)
Adults fly mostly in bright sunshine.
Wood (Tremicinae mostly on hardwoods; Siricinae, on conifers); larvae require a symbiotic fungus to digest wood(2). It is a complex interaction between three organisms: the woodwasp, a symbiotic wood-decaying fungus, and the host tree.
larval development may take 1 to 3 years to complete depending on species and climate(2).
Males emerge first and disperse, preventing inbreeding.
Some are serious pests of trees and spread as larvae with lumber trade.
The most important predators and parasitoids are the ichneumonid wasp Megarhyssa and some nematodes
Horntails do not sting: what looks like a sting is the ovipositor the female uses to lay eggs in wood.
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