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Genus Cicurina

Gnaphosid C - Cicurina spider - Cicurina robusta - female Blewett Underlogger - Cicurina - female Cicurina? - Cicurina - female Another Cicurina? - Cicurina pusilla - male Another Cicurina? - Cicurina pusilla - male Spider - Cicurina brevis - male tiny brown spider found in rotting log - Cicurina
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Chelicerata (Chelicerates)
Class Arachnida (Arachnids)
Order Araneae (Spiders)
Infraorder Araneomorphae (True Spiders)
No Taxon (Entelegynes )
Family Dictynidae (Mesh Web Weavers)
Genus Cicurina
Other Common Names
Cave Meshweaver, Cave Spider
Pronunciation
sik-uhr-EYE-nuh
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Entire genus was transferred to Dictynidae from Agelenidae in 1967 by Lehtinen.
Explanation of Names
Author of name: Franz Anton Menge. First year published: 1871.
In Latin, Cicurina translates to "tame, mild."
Numbers
112 species in BugGuide's range (North America north of Mexico), as of Dec. 18, 2011(1).
An additional 19 species are found in the rest of the world: 5 in Mexico, 3 in Europe, and the rest from Asia.
Size
Varies widely, but all species are small to medium-sized spiders. One of the smallest species (C. minorata) is less than 2mm in length, while one of the largest (e.g. C. ludoviciana) reaches 13mm in length.(2)
Identification
(At least 60 of the species in this genus are eyeless cave-dwellers, while the rest have 6 or 8 eyes. The majority of the eyeless and six-eyed species are found in Texas caves.)
Range
Exact distribution within these countries will be finished when time permits and we have access to one more paper, Gertsch 1992 (unfortunately, the full range of most of these species is mostly unknown). (Species list is current as of Dec. 18, 2011(1))
Also please note that this genus is in desperate need of a revision. Current ranges are not set in stone and some species may actually be synonyms since some of those currently described are known only from a single adult specimen.

(The species with Canadian and Alaskan distribution have been filled in with their known range based on the 2010 spider checklist (3).)

Color key for ranges:
TEXAS = PURPLE highlights.
CANADA = GREEN highlights.
ALASKA = GOLD highlights.

aenigma: USA
alpicora: USA
arcata: USA
arcuata: USA, Canada (SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS)
arizona: USA
arkansa: USA
armadillo: USA
atomaria: USA
bandera: TEXAS (only reported from the type locality: "Fossil Cave" in Bandera County, Texas; male unknown)(4)
bandida: TEXAS (known only from roughly 20 adjacent caves in Travis County, Texas: so far restricted to a 10 km × 30 km area; male unknown) (Paquin et al., 2008)
baronia endangered**: TEXAS (only reported from the type locality: "Robber Baron Cave" in Bexar County, Texas)(4)
barri: TEXAS (only reported from the type locality: "Caverns of Sonora" in Sutton County, Texas; male unknown.)(4)
blanco: USA
breviaria: USA
brevis: USA, Canada (MB, ON, QC, NB, NS)
browni: TEXAS (only reported from the type locality: "Brown’s Cave" in Williamson County, Texas; male unknown)(4)
brunsi: TEXAS (only reported from the type locality: "Stahl Cave" in Bexar County, Texas; male unknown)(4)
bryantae: USA
bullis: TEXAS (known only from 5 caves in Bexar County, Texas: Eagles Nest Cave, Hilger Hole, Isocow Cave, Platypus Pit, & Root Canal Cave; male unknown(4)
buwata: TEXAS (reported from 11 caves in TX; Travis County: Cotterell Cave, Fossil Garden Cave, Gallifer Cave; Williamson County: Beck’s Sewer Cave, Bev's Grotto, Buttercup River Cave, Good Friday Cave, Marigold Cave, Sam Bass Cave (=McNeil Quarry Cave), Testudo Tube, & T.W.A.S. a Cave; male unknown)(4)
caliga: TEXAS (reported from 3 caves in Bell County, TX: Buchanan Cave, Streak Cave, and Triple J Cave; male unknown(4)
cavealis: USA
caverna: TEXAS (only reported from the type locality: "Fleming’s Bat Cave" in Kimble County, Texas; male unknown)(4)
colorada: USA
coryelli: TEXAS (reported from 3 caves in Coryell County, TX: Big Red Cave, Egypt Cave, Tippit Cave; male unknown)(4)
davisi: USA
delrio: TEXAS (reported from 3 caves in Val Verde County, TX: Diablo Cave, Sunset Cave, and Unnamed Cave No 8; Gertsch's 1992 specimen from Unnamed Cave No 8 could not be located and confirmed, but it is included; male unknown)(4)
deserticola: USA
dorothea: USA
ezelli: TEXAS (only reported from the type locality: "Ezell’s Cave" in Hays County, Texas; male unknown)(4)
gertschi: USA
gruta: TEXAS (only reported from the type locality: "Dunbar Cave" in Edwards County, Texas; male unknown)(4)
harrietae: USA
hexops: USA
holsingeri: TEXAS (only reported from the type locality: "Seminole Canyon Cave" in Val Verde County, Texas; male unknown)(4)
hoodensis: TEXAS (reported from 6 caves in Bell County, TX: Buchanan Cave, Camp 6 Cave No. 1, Peep in the Deep Cave, Talking Crows Cave, Treasure Cave, & Triple J Cave; male unknown)(4)
idahoana: USA, Canada (BC)
intermedia: USA, Canada (BC, AB)
itasca: USA, Canada (ON, QC)
jonesi: USA
joya: USA
loftini: TEXAS (only known from 2 caves in Bexar County, TX: "Caracol Creek Coon Cave" and "SBC Cave"; male unknown)(4)
ludoviciana: USA
machete: TEXAS (only reported from the type locality: "Whiteface Cave" in San Saba County, Texas; male unknown)(4)
madla endangered**: TEXAS (reported from 20 caves in Bexar County, and one from Uvalde county: Christmas Cave, Headquarters Cave, Helotes Blowhole, Hills and Dales Pit, Lost Pothole, Madla’s Cave, Madla’s Drop Cave, Robber’s Cave, Fatman’s Nightmare Cave, Feature 50, UTSA, Helotes Hilltop Cave, Javelina Cave, John Wagner Cave #3, La Cantera #1, Lithic Ridge Cave, Margaritaville Cave, San Antonio Ranch Pit, Scenic Overlook Cave, Surprise Sink, Cranes Bat Cave. The Margaritaville Cave record from Uvalde County requires confirmation given the distance between the known distribution area and this locality. male unknown)(4)(5)
marmorea: USA
mckenziei: TEXAS (only reported from the type locality: "Fog Fissure" in Bandera County, Texas; male unknown)(4)
medina: TEXAS (only reported from the type locality: "Boehme’s Cave" in Medina County, Texas; female unknown)(4)
menardia: TEXAS (only reported from the type locality: "Powell’s Cave" in Menard County, Texas)(4)
microps: USA
minima: USA, Canada (QC)
minnesota: USA, Canada (ON)
minorata: USA
mirifica: TEXAS (only reported from the type locality: "Amazing Maze Cave" in Pecos County, Texas; male unknown)(4)
mixmaster: TEXAS (only reported from the type locality: "Mixmaster Cave" in Coryell County, Texas; male unknown)(4)
modesta: USA
neovespera: TEXAS (known from 2 caves in Bexar County, TX: Elm Spring Cave (=Grubbs Cave ES) and Grubbs Cave No. 23, 8 km NE Helotes; male unknown)(4)
nevadensis: USA
obscura: TEXAS (only reported from the type locality: "Sutherland Hollow Cave" in Bandera County, Texas; male unknown)(4)
oklahoma: USA
orellia: TEXAS (only reported from the type locality: "Orell Crevice Cave" in Real County, Texas; male unknown)(4)
pablo: TEXAS (only reported from the type locality: "Pablo’s Cave" in Uvalde County, Texas; male unknown)(4)
pacifica: USA
pagosa: USA
pallida: USA, Canada (QC, NB, NS)
pampa: USA
parma: USA
pastura: TEXAS (only reported from the type locality: "Water Pond Pasture Cave" in Kerr County, Texas; male unknown)(4)
patei: TEXAS (only reported from the type locality: "Fawcett’s Cave" in Val Verde County, Texas; male unknown)(4)
peckhami: USA, Canada, ALASKA
placida: USA, Canada (MB, ON, NB, NS)
platypus: TEXAS (known only from 2 caves in Bexar County, TX: MARS Pit and Platypus Pit; male unknown)(4)
porteri: TEXAS (only reported from the type locality: "Oriente Milestone Molasses Bat Cave" in Val Verde County, Texas; male unknown)(4)
puentecilla: TEXAS (only known from 3 caves in Comal County, Texas: B-52 cave, Black Cat Cave, and Natural Bridge Caverns; male unknown)(4)
pusilla: USA, ALASKA
rainesi: TEXAS (only reported from the type locality: "3–Bounce Pit" in Edwards County, Texas; male unknown)(4)
reclusa: TEXAS (reported from 2 caves in Comal County, Texas: Kappelman Cave and Kappelman Salamander Cave; male unknown)(4)
reddelli: TEXAS (only reported from the type locality: "Cotterell Cave" in Travis County, Texas; male unknown)(4)
riogrande: USA
robusta: USA, Canada (AB, SK, MB, QC, NS)
rosae: USA
rudimentops: USA
russelli: TEXAS (only reported from the type locality: "Boyett’s Cave" in Hays County, Texas; male unknown)(4)
sansaba: TEXAS (only reported from the type locality: "Gorman Cave" in San Saba County, Texas)(4)
secreta: USA
selecta: TEXAS (only reported from the type locality: "Sandtleben Cave" (=Davy Crockett Cave) in Uvalde County, Texas; male unknown)(4)
serena: TEXAS (reported from 2 caves in Uvalde County, TX: North Well Cave and Picture Cave No. 1; male unknown)(4)
shasta: USA
sheari: TEXAS (only reported from the type locality: "Ramseys Bat Cave" in Real County, Texas; male unknown)(4)
sierra: USA
simplex: USA, Canada (BC, AB), ALASKA
sintonia: USA
sprousei: TEXAS (only reported from the type locality: "Station ‘C’ Cave" in Bandera County, Texas; male unknown)(4)
stowersi: TEXAS (only reported from the type locality: "Stowers Cave" in Kerr County, Texas; male unknown)(4)
suttoni: TEXAS (only reported from the type locality: "Felton Cave" in Sutton County, Texas)(4)
tacoma: USA
tersa: USA, Canada (BC)
texana: USA
tortuba: USA
travisae: TEXAS (reported from these caves in the Jollyville Plateau of Travis County: Amber Cave, Kretschmarr Cave, McDonald Cave (=Schulze Cave), Pisarowicz Cave, Root Cave, Salamander Cave, and Tooth Cave; male unknown)(4)
troglobia: TEXAS (only reported from the type locality: "Seven Mile Mountain Cave" in Bell County, Texas; male unknown)(4)
ubicki: TEXAS (known from 2 caves in Hays County, TX: Fern Cave and McGlothlin Cave; male unknown)(4)
utahana: USA
uvalde: TEXAS (only reported from the type locality: "Rambie’s Cave" in Uvalde County, Texas; male unknown)(4)
varians: USA, Canada (AB)
venefica: TEXAS (only reported from the type locality: "Wizard’s Well" in Terrell County, Texas; male unknown)(4)
venii endangered**: TEXAS (only reported from the type locality: "Braken Bat Cave" in Bexar County, Texas; male unknown)(4)
vespera endangered**: TEXAS (only reported from the type locality: "Government Canyon Bat Cave" in Bexar County, Texas; male unknown)(4)
vibora: TEXAS (known from 3 caves in Williamson County, TX: Rattlesnake Filled Cave, Temples of Thor Cave, and Sunless City Cave; male unknown)(4)
wartoni: TEXAS (only reported from the type locality: "Pickle Pit" in Travis County, Texas; male unknown)(4)
watersi: TEXAS (only reported from the type locality: "Frio Queen Cave" in Uvalde County, Texas; male unknown)(4)
wiltoni: ALABAMA (only reported from "Crystal Caverns" in Jefferson County, Alabama)(4)
Habitat
These spiders are generally found under rocks and in rotten logs, mostly in forested regions, although a few species are found in more xeric habitats. Many Cicurina species are found only in caves, and display obvious morphological features (troglomorphisms) associated with this lifestyle (e.g. eyelessness). The U.S. state of Texas is rich in such eyeless, cave-limited Cicurina.(5)

At least one species (C. bryantae) builds a very unique retreat under rotten logs:
Remarks
Cicurina of Western Washington: "C. pusilla is by far the commonest. C. simplex and C. "idahoana" (really an undescribed species related to idahoana, in my opinion) are moderately common. Cicurina tersa is less common than the previous three. The other Cicurina of western Washington are actually rare here, C. tacoma and C. intermedia." ~Rod Crawford

Notice that in the year 2000, four species were listed as U.S. Federally Endangered. These species are marked as such in the "range" list above and the final rule from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is marked with red asterisks in the "internet references" section.
Print References
Bennett, R. G., 1985. The natural history and taxonomy of Cicurina bryantae Exline (Araneae, Agelenidae). Journal of Arachnology, 13: 87-96. (online PDF available here)

Chamberlin, R. V. & W. Ivie, 1940. Agelenid spiders of the genus Cicurina. Bulletin of the University of Utah, 30(13): 1-108. (online PDF available here)

Cokendolpher, J. C., 2004a. Cicurina spiders from caves in Bexar County, Texas (Araneae: Dictynidae). Texas Memorial Museum,
Speleological Monographs, 6: 13-58. (online PDF available here)

Cokendolpher, J. C., 2004b. Notes on troglobitic Cicurina (Araneae: Dictynidae) from Fort Hood, Texas, with description of another new
species. Texas Memorial Museum, Speleological Monographs, 6: 59-62. (online PDF available here)

Cokendolpher, J. C. & J. R. Reddell, 2001. Cave spiders (Araneae) of Fort Hood, Texas, with descriptions of new species of Cicurina (Dictynidae) and Neoleptoneta (Leptonetidae). Texas Memorial Museum, Speleological Monographs, 5: 35-55. (online PDF available here)

Exline, H., 1936a. Nearctic spiders of the genus Cicurina Menge. American Museum Novitates, 850: 1-25. (online PDF available here)

Gertsch, W. J., 1992. Distribution patterns and speciation in North American cave spiders with a list of the troglobites and revision of the cicurinas of the subgenus Cicurella. Studies on the endogean fauna of North America II. Texas Memorial Museum Speleological Monographs, 3: 75–122.

Paquin, P. & N. Dupérré, 2009a. A first step towards the revision of Cicurina: redescription of type specimens of 60 troglobitic species of the subgenus Cicurella (Araneae: Dictynidae), and a first visual assessment of their distribution. Zootaxa, 2002: 1-67. (online PDF available here)

Paquin, P. & M. Hedin, 2004. The power and perils of ‘molecular taxonomy’: a case study of eyeless and endangered Cicurina (Araneae: Dictynidae) from Texas caves. Molecular Ecology, 13: 3239–3255. (online PDF available here)

Roth, V. & P. Brame, 1972. Nearctic genera of the spider family Agelenidae (Arachnida, Araneida). American Museum Novitates, 2505: 1–52. (online PDF available here; page 25 has Cicurina info)

Ubick et al, 2005. Spiders of North America: an identification manual. American Arachnological Society, Keene (New Hampshire). 377 pages.
Internet References
Images of the European species Cicurina cicur: http://www.spiderling.de/arages/Fotogalerie/Fotogalerie.htm (from the drop-down menu, select "Cicurina")

**(2000) Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, 50 CFR Part 17, RIN 1018-AF33. Final rule to list nine Bexar County, Texas invertebrate species as endangered. Federal Register, 65, 81419–81433. https://federalregister.gov/a/00-32809
Works Cited
1.The World Spider Catalog by Norman I. Platnick
2.Agelenid spiders of the genus Cicurina
Ralph Chamberlin & Wilton Ivie. 1940. Bulletin of the University of Utah, 30(13): 1-108.
3.Checklist of the spiders (Araneae) of Canada and Alaska
Paquin, Buckle, Duperre, & Dondale. 2010. Zootaxa 2461: 1–170.
4.A first step towards the revision of Cicurina: redescription of type specimens of 60 troglobitic species of the subgenus Cicurel
Pierre Paquin & Nadine Dupérré. 2009. Zootaxa, 2002: 1-67.
5.The power and perils of molecular taxonomy: a case study of eyeless and endangered Cicurina (Araneae: Dictynidae) from TX caves
P. Paquin & M. Hedin. 2004. Molecular Ecology, 13: 3239–3255.