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Subfamily Xylocopinae - Carpenter Bees

Large Carpenter Bee - Xylocopa virginica - male Eastern Carpenter Bee - Xylocopa virginica - female Another Strange Xylocopa from Florida - Xylocopa micans - male Southern Carpenter Bee - Xylocopa micans small bee - Ceratina cockerelli - male unknown hymenopteran - Ceratina - male Small carpenter bee - Ceratina - female Bee 8837 - Ceratina - female
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Hymenoptera (Ants, Bees, Wasps and Sawflies)
No Taxon (Aculeata - Ants, Bees and Stinging Wasps)
No Taxon (Anthophila (Apoidea) - Bees)
Family Apidae (Cuckoo, Carpenter, Digger, Bumble, and Honey Bees)
Subfamily Xylocopinae (Carpenter Bees)
Numbers
33 spp. in 2 genera of 2 tribes in our area, >1000 spp. in 16 genera of 4 tribes worldwide/total(1)
Range
worldwide; our tribes are both cosmopolitan, one tribe is palaeotropical, and another one (of 3 spp. only) is restricted to the Andean region(1)
Life Cycle
Many Xylocopinae are primitively eusocial(2)
Remarks
Each of our two genera is the only member of its own tribe (Ceratinini and Xylocopini, respectively)(1).

Recent molecular phylogenetic studies resolving this subfamily as paraphyletic due to a divergent position of the Chilean tribe Manueliini can be interpreted as failure of commonly used phylogenetic methods to achieve a credible result.
Print References
(3)
Works Cited
1.Ascher J.S., Pickering J. (2014) Discover Life bee species guide and world checklist (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila)
2.The Bees of the World, 2nd edition
Charles D. Michener. 2007. The Johns Hopkins University Press.
3.Borror and DeLong's Introduction to the Study of Insects
Norman F. Johnson, Charles A. Triplehorn. 2004. Brooks Cole.