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Species Papilio zelicaon - Anise Swallowtail

Papilio zelicaon - male Anise swallowtail - Papilio zelicaon Anise Swallowtail - Papilio zelicaon Anise Swallowtail- Papilio zelicaon - Papilio zelicaon Anise swallowtail - Papilio zelicaon Anise Swallowtail - Papilio zelicaon - male Just eclosed - Papilio zelicaon Tiger Swallow Tail - Papilio zelicaon
Show images of: caterpillars · adults · both
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Lepidoptera (Butterflies and Moths)
Superfamily Papilionoidea (Butterflies (excluding skippers))
Family Papilionidae (Swallowtails, Parnassians)
Subfamily Papilioninae
Tribe Papilionini (Fluted Swallowtails)
Genus Papilio
Species zelicaon (Anise Swallowtail)
Other Common Names
Almost any of the common names applied to caterpillars of Papilio polyxenes might also be applied to this species, since it has similar food preferences and the identical-appearing caterpillars are often found on the same plants in gardens, particularly near the Pacific Coast.
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
First described in 1852 by Hippolyte Lucas as Papilio zelicaon
Size
Wing span: 2 3/4 - 3 1/2 inches (7 - 9 cm).(1)
Identification
Upper surface of hindwing has yellow-orange eyespot near tail with round black center that is not connected to hindwing margin. Anal cell of hindwing is primarily yellow.(1)
Range
From British Columbia southeast to North Dakota, south to s. California, Arizona, New Mexico; Baja California; Mexico. A rare stray to central Nebraska and eastern North Dakota.(1)
Habitat
Bare hills, mountains, gardens, fields, vacant lots, and roadsides.(1)
Season
One flight from April-July.(1)
Food
Caterpillar hosts: Many species in the parsley family (Apiaceae), and some in the citrus family (Rutaceae).(1)
Adults visit many flowers, and often visit moist ground.
Life Cycle
Males perch on hilltops and patrol for receptive females. Females lay eggs singly on host plant leaves and flowers. Young caterpillars eat leaves while older ones often eat flowers and young seeds. Chrysalids hibernate.(1)
Internet References
Canadian Biodiversity shows two female forms, with more or less black, and one very black male, form nitra.
Revue et Magasin de Zoologie Pure et Appliquée, ser.2, v.4, p.136    Lucas' original description of the species (in French)