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Subfamily Apinae - Honey, Bumble, Long-horned, Orchid, and Digger Bees

Anthophora urbana - male Honey Bee - Apis mellifera black and yellow Bumble Bee - Bombus impatiens Centris sp - Centris rhodopus - female Diadasia - male Bee - Melissodes - male Green Bee - Euglossa dilemma - female bee d - Anthophorula Ericrocis lata? - Xeromelecta californica
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Hymenoptera (Ants, Bees, Wasps and Sawflies)
No Taxon (Aculeata - Ants, Bees and Stinging Wasps)
No Taxon (Anthophila (Apoidea) - Bees)
Family Apidae (Cuckoo, Carpenter, Digger, Bumble, and Honey Bees)
Subfamily Apinae (Honey, Bumble, Long-horned, Orchid, and Digger Bees)
Numbers
450 spp. in 34 genera of 12 tribes in our area, >3,500 spp. in ~160 genera of 20 tribes worldwide(1)
Range
worldwide(1)
Remarks
This subfamily includes the corbiculate Apidae, i.e. Apidae sensu stricto including the former family Anthophoridae.

Recent molecular phylogenetic studies report paraphyly of Apinae with respect to both Xylocopinae and Nomadinae. However, these results are questionable, in part because position of genera such as the Chilean Manuelia (Xylocopinae) is unstable. Various other tribes now included in Apinae, such as Melectini, Rhathymini, Ericrocidini, Osirini, and Protepeolini, have been associated in the past with Nomadinae in the past, but evidence from life history studies by Rozen support multiple independent origins of these. Recent molecular phylogenies proposing a single origin of cleptoparasitism for these apine cleptoparasites have strong clade support only by measures such as Bayesian PP that are well known to be inflated, and support is lacking by more conservative measures such as the parsimony jackknife.