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Genus Papaipema - Borer Moths

Noctuidae: Papaipema arctivorens? - Papaipema baptisiae Noctuidae: Papaipema baptisiae - Papaipema baptisiae Papaipema sp. - Papaipema arctivorens Noctuidae: Papaipema baptisiae - Papaipema baptisiae Noctuidae: Papaipema nebris - Papaipema nebris Noctuidae: Papaipema necopina - Papaipema necopina Noctuidae: Papaipema maritina? - Papaipema Papaipema sp - Papaipema pterisii
Show images of: caterpillars · adults · both
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Lepidoptera (Butterflies and Moths)
Superfamily Noctuoidea (Owlet Moths and kin)
Family Noctuidae (Owlet Moths)
Subfamily Noctuinae (Cutworm or Dart Moths)
Tribe Apameini
Genus Papaipema (Borer Moths)
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Papaipema Smith, 1899
Emboloecia Hampson, 1908
Hydroecia Guenée, 1841
Numbers
Lafontaine & Schmidt (2010) listed 47 species of the genus Papaipema in America north of Mexico. (1)
Size
Wingspan 25-55 mm.
Identification
Adult: forewing may be brightly marked, often with yellow or orange dominant, but a number of species are dark brown; white forewing spots or groups of spots variably present or absent among species and among individuals of a species
Range
An exclusively North American genus; distributed throughout United States and southern Canada but species diversity much greater in the east (almost 40 species occur in eastern NA)
Habitat
Open areas: grasslands/prairies, wetlands, sedge meadows, sandy areas, fens, bogs, damp or dry fields/pastures
Season
Moths emerge in late summer/fall.
Food
Caterpillars bore into the roots, rhizomes, and stems of herbaceous plants; rarely seen. A number of species feed only on a particular host plant; a few are generalist feeders.
Life Cycle
Eggs laid in late summer/fall, hatch in spring, and larvae bore into the food plant. Pupate in summer, and moths emerge later the same year.
Remarks
► The moths in this genus are often brightly marked but are usually not commonly seen. Their flight period, late summer/fall, and their supposedly sluggish behaviour is part of the reason for their apparent scarcity. The moths do respond to lights but the lights have to be in the larval habitat for each species. Adults appear not to wander far from the larval hosts plants.
► Many species are rare or locally distributed. Numbers have generally declined since historical times due to loss of wetland and prairie habitat, and the resulting scarcity of particular food plants upon which some species depend (the names of various Papaipema species appear on a number of state lists of "species in greatest need of conservation").
See Also
Hydroeciodes serrata is superficially similar to many Papaipema species.
Print References
Covell (2) illustrates 12 species.
Smith, J.B., 1899. Contributions toward a monograph of the insects of the Noctuidae of Boreal North America. Revision of the genus Hydrecia. Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 26: 12.
Internet References
pinned adult image thumbnails of 24 species in eastern Canada (CBIF)
distribution of 27 species in Canada, listing provinces for each (U. of Alberta, using CBIF data)
Works Cited
1.Annotated check list of the Noctuoidea (Insecta, Lepidoptera) of North America north of Mexico.
Donald J. Lafontaine, B. Christian Schmidt. 2010. ZooKeys 40: 1–239 .
2.Field Guide to Moths of Eastern North America
Charles V. Covell, Jr. 2005.