Identification, Images, & Information
For Insects, Spiders & Their Kin
For the United States & Canada
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List of non-native arthropods in North America.

Introduction

Ever since the first European explorers arrived in the American continent, plants and animals have been arriving along with them. It is estimated that more than two thousand (2,273) species of insects and arachnids have set residence in this continent, according to the North American Non-Indigenous Arthropod Database of the USDA or NANIAD.
Some were brought intentionally, others arrived on their own. With the increase in traveling and international commerce, the numbers of introduced species probably keeps growing even faster than in earlier times. Some of them become invasive, wreaking havoc in local ecosystems, not just the ones that were introduced accidentally, but also some that were brought intentionally for a variety of reasons and later on managed to escape and spread beyond control. More insects have been introduced intentionally than otherwise, especially to serve as biological controls. It is estimated that over 1700 species have entered this way; most of them are parasitoids or predators of pests.
Among the earliest pests that arrived in colonial times probably were the bed bug Cimex lectularius, cockroaches and the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Probably the earliest insects that were brought intentionally were the domestic bee Apis mellifera and the silk worm Bombyx mori. The silk worm is of no concern to us because, after thousands of years of domestication, it has lost its ability to survive on its own, and it is not found in nature. The honey bee on the other hand is a very resourceful and adaptable creature that has escaped domestication repeatedly and set up housekeeping in tree holes, other natural cavities and even hollow walls, much to the delight of bears and other honey-eating animals. Nowadays it is probably established in most states and there is no way to tell the impact that populations of domestic bees have had on native bees and on native flowers.
In addition to the comprehensive list issued by NANIAD there are a few other resources on the internet that may be of interest here:
A report issued by USDA Forest Service in 1994 lists 368 immigrant plant-eating insects. See:Immigrant Phytophagous Insects: an Annotated List.
Invasive.org, (a joint project of: The Bugwood Network, USDA Forest Service and USDA APHIS PPQ, the University of Georgia – Warnell School of Forest Resources and College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences – Dept. of Entomology) lists 152 species of invasive insects. See Invasive insects.
A report of the University of Florida Invasive Insects (Adventive Pests Insects) in Florida lists 150 species of insects and 35 species of arachnids considered invasive in that state. Note that some of them were introduced to Florida from some other states, not from abroad.
The same thing applies to Invasive Species Resource List provided by the University of Pennsylvania.
Cornell University has a list of some insects used as biocontrols. See Biocontrols. Many of them, but not all have been introduced from other countries.
Perhaps the most complete list of species intentionally introduced as biocontrols is ROBO – Releases of Beneficial Organisms in the United States and Territories. It also includes a list of “target” species, the hosts of prey of the beneficial ones; most of them are undesirable non-natives.
Here, at BugGuide we have approximately 80 species of introduced insects and spiders (as of September 2005) and the numbers keep growing. I think that a list of non-native insects and arachnids with links to the corresponding pages would be of great value. I hope that everybody helps adding species that I missed or new ones as they are added to the guide. I hope to get your help with taxonomic issues, such as the proper sorting of families within larger taxa.

This list includes only non-native species featured in BugGuide in which there is a high degree of certainty of having been introduced. Others have been omitted, but will be added if somebody confirms that they are not native. For each species there is a link to the pertinent page with additional information if available.

Update 7/6/2010. Some introduced or non-native species become invasive. You can find a list of Invasive Species by Chuck Entz, with links and additional information.
Update 7/8/2010. A useful resource: Review of adventive species of Coleoptera (Insecta) recorded from eastern Canada(1)
Update 6/3/2011. Trichoferus campestris (Faldermann) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), an Asian wood-boring beetle recorded in North America (summary of non-native Cerambycidae introduced into NA, p.18)
Update 2/9/2012. List of invasive species of British Columbia
Update 10/6/2012. Invasive Species Compendium (2)
Exotic bark and ambrosia beetles(3)
Potential invasive species of scale insects for the USA and Caribbean Basin (4)
Recent adventive scale insects(5)

Table of contents

Class Arachnida
     Order Actinedida
     Order Araneae – Spiders
     Order Ixodida – Ticks
     Order Mesostigmata
     Order Opiliones - Harvestmen
     Order Scorpiones – Scorpions

Class Insecta
     Order Microcoryphia – Bristletails
      Order Ephemeroptera – Mayflies
     Order Odonata – Dragonflies and Damselflies
     Order Embiidina – Webspinners
     Order Phasmida - Walking Sticks
     Order Orthoptera
     Order Dermaptera – Earwigs
     Order Mantodea – Mantids
     Order Blattodea – Cockroaches and Termites
     Order Psocodea
     Order Hemiptera – True Bugs, Cicadas, Hoppers, Aphids and Allies
           Suborder Auchenorrhyncha – Free-living Hemipterans
           Suborder Heteroptera – True Bugs
           Suborder Sternorrhyncha
     Order Thysanoptera – Thrips
     Order Neuroptera - Antlions, Lacewings and Allies
     Order Coleoptera
     Order Hymenoptera
     Order Lepidoptera
     Order Diptera
     Order Siphonaptera

Class Collembola – Springtails and allies
      Order Entomobryomorpha – Elongate-bodied Springtails
      Order Symphypleona – Globular Springtails

Class Chilopoda – Centipedes
     Order Lithobiomorpha – Stone Centipedes
     Order Scolopendromorpha – Tropical Centipedes
     Order Scutigeromorpha – House Centipedes

Class Diplopoda – Millipedes
     Order Julida
     Order Spirobolida
     Order Polydesmida

Class Malacostraca – Malacostracans
     Order Amphipoda – Amphipods
     Order Isopoda
     Order Decapoda


Class Arachnida


Order Actinedida

Family Tetranychidae – Spider Mites
European red mite, Panonychus ulmi. From Europe
Twospotted Spider Mite, Tetranychus urticae. From Europe


Order Araneae – Spiders

Family Agelenidae – Funnel-Web Spiders
Hobo Spider, Eratigena agrestis. From Europe, 1930s
Giant House Spider, Eratigena atrica. From Europe, 1930s
Barn Funnel Weaver, Tegenaria domestica. From Europe, 1930s

Family Amaurobiidae - Hacklemesh Weavers
No common name, Amaurobius ferox. From Europe, 1871

Family Amphinectidae
No common name, Metaltella simoni. From South America, 1944

Family Araneidae – Orb Weavers
Garden Spider, Araneus diadematus. From Europe
Tropical tent-web spider, Cyrtophora citricola
No common name, Zygiella atrica. From Europe
No common name, Zygiella x-notata. From Europe

Family Cithaeronidae
No common name, Cithaeron praedonius. From the Old World

Family Clubionidae - Sac Spiders
No common name, Clubiona pallidula. From the Old World, 1949

Family Corinnidae - Antmimics and Ground Sac Spiders
No common name, Falconina gracilis. From South America
No common name, Meriola arcifera. From South America

Family Desidae
No common name, Badumna longinqua. From Australia

Family Gnaphosidae - Ground Spiders
No common name, Camillina pulchra. From South America
No common name, Scotophaeus blackwalli. From Europe (?)
No common name, Trachyzelotes lyonneti. From the Mediterranean

Family Linyphiidae – Sheetweb and Dwarf Spiders
No common name, Centromerita bicolor. From the Palaearctic
No common name, Diplostyla concolor. From the Palaearctic
No common name, Lepthyphantes leprosus. From Europe
No common name, Linyphia triangularis. From Europe
No common name, Megalepthyphantes nebulosus
No common name, Tenuiphantes tenuis. From Europe, 1950s

Family Lycosidae – Wolf Spiders
No common name, Arctosa perita. From the Palaearctic

Family Miturgidae – Prowling Spiders
Yellow Sac Spider, Cheiracanthium mildei. From southern Europe/Mediterranean

Family Oecobiidae – Wall Spiders
Wall Spider, Oecobius navus. From the Tropics

Family Philodromidae – Running Crab Spiders
No common name, Philodromus dispar. From Europe, recently

Family Pholcidae – Cellar Spiders
No common name, Artema atlanta.
Tailed Daddy-Longlegs, Crossopriza lyoni. From Asia, recently
Marbled Cellar Spider, Holocnemus pluchei. From the Mediterranean, 1970s
No common name, Pholcus manueli. Probably introduced
Longbodied Cellar Spider, Pholcus phalangioides. Probably introduced
Pale Daddy-Longlegs, Smeringopus pallidus. From Asia
Short-bodied Cellar Spider, Spermophora senoculata

Family Salticidae – Jumping Spiders
No common name, Freya ambigua. From Tropical South America
No common name, Hakka himeshimensis. From East Asia
Adanson's House Spider, Hasarius adansoni. From Eastern Asia
Gray Wall Jumper, Menemerus bivittatus. From the Tropics
No common name, Menemerus semilimbatus. From the Mediterranean region
No common name, Myrmarachne formicaria. From Europe, recently
Pan-tropical Jumper, Plexippus paykulli
No common name, Pseudeuophrys erratica. From the Palaearctic
Zebra Jumper, Salticus scenicus. Holarctic, probably introduced
No common name, Sitticus ammophilus. From Eastern Europe, West-central Asia
No common name, Sitticus fasciger. From Asia in the 1960s
No common name, Sitticus pubescens. From Europe

Family Sicariidae – Recluse Spiders
Mediterranean Recluse, Loxosceles rufescens. From the Mediterranean region

Family Sparassidae – Giant Crab Spiders
Huntsman Spider, Heteropoda venatoria. From Asia
No common name, Pseudosparianthis cubana. From Cuba

Family Tetragnathidae – Long-jawed Orb Weavers
No common name, Metellina segmentata. From the Palaearctic

Family Theridiidae – Cobweb Spiders
No common name, Enoplognatha latimana
No common name, Enoplognatha ovata
Brown Widow, Latrodectus geometricus. From Australia and S. Africa
No common name, Neottiura bimaculata. From the Palaearctic
No common name, Steatoda bipunctata. From Europe
False Black Widow, Steatoda grossa
No common name, Steatoda nobilis. From Europe

Family Thomisidae - Crab Spiders
No common name, Xysticus cristatus

Family Zoropsidae – False Wolf Spiders
No common name, Zoropsis spinimana. From the Mediterranean


Order Ixodida – Ticks

Family Ixodidae – Hard Ticks
Brown Dog Tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Cosmopolitan


Order Mesostigmata

Family Phytoseiidae
No common name, Amblyseius swirskii From the Mediterranean

Family Varroidae
Varroa Mite, Varroa sp. From Asia, recently


Order Opiliones - Harvestmen

Family Phalangiidae
No common name, Paroligolophus agrestis. From Europe
No common name, Rilaena triangularis. From Europe

Family Trogulidae
No common name, Trogulus tricarinatus. From Europe


Order Scorpiones – Scorpions

Family Buthidae
Florida Bark Scorpion, Centruroides gracilis. From the Tropics


Class Insecta


Order Microcoryphia – Bristletails

Family Machilidae – Jumping Bristletails
No common name, Petrobius brevistylus. From Europe, 1963
No common name, Trigoniophthalmus alternatus. From southern Europe, 1911


Order Ephemeroptera – Mayflies

Family Baetidae – Small Minnow Mayflies
No common name, Cloeon dipterum (?) From Eurasia


Order Odonata – Dragonflies and Damselflies

Family Libellulidae – Skimmers
Scarlet Skimmer, Crocothemis servilia. From China, Japan, and Australia
Pin-tailed Pondhawk, Erythemis plebeja.


Order Embiidina

Family Oligotomidae
No common name, Haploembia solieri. From the Mediterranean
Black Webspinner, Oligotoma nigra. From Egypt/Persian Gulf, 1880s
Saunders' Embiid, Oligotoma saundersii. From India


Order Phasmida - Walking Sticks

Family Phasmatidae
Indian Stick Insect, Carausius morosus. From India, recently


Order Orthoptera

Family Acrididae – Short-horned Grasshoppers
No common name, Chorthippus affinis brunneus. From Europe

Family Gryllidae – True Crickets
House Cricket, Acheta domesticus
Tropical House Cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus. Probably from Asia
Jamaican Field Cricket, Gryllus assimilis. From Jamaica
Japanese Burrowing Cricket, Velarifictorus micado. From Asia

Family Gryllotalpidae – Mole Crickets
European Mole Cricket, Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa. From Europe, 1900s or earlier
Lesser Short-winged Mole Cricket, Scapteriscus abbreviatus. From South America, early 1900s
Southern Mole Cricket, Scapteriscus borellii. From South America, early 1900s
Tawny Mole Cricket; Changa, Scapteriscus vicinus. From South America, early 1900s

Family Rhaphidophoridae – Camel Crickets
Greenhouse Camel Cricket, Diestrammena asynamora. Probably from China
Japanese Camel Cricket, Diestrammena japanica . From Japan

Family Tetigoniidae – Katydids
Drumming Katydid, Meconema thalassinum. From Europe
Roesel’s Katydid, Metrioptera roeselii. From Europe, 1953
Mediterranean Katydid, Phaneroptera nana. From Europe, 1930s
Brown-spotted Bush-cricket, Tessellana tessellata. From Europe


Order Dermaptera – Earwigs

Family Anisolabididae
Maritime Earwig, Anisolabis maritima
Ring-legged Earwig, Euborellia annulipes. From Europe, 1884
African Earwig, Euborellia cincticollis. From Africa

Family Chelisochidae
Black Earwig, Chelisoches morio. From Pacific Islands (probably Hawaii)

Family Forficulidae
European Earwig, Forficula auricularia. From Europe, early 1900s

Family Labiduridae – Striped Earwigs
Shore Earwig, Labidura riparia

Family Spongiphoridae – Little Earwigs
Lesser Earwig, Labia minor


Order Mantodea – Mantids

Family Mantidae
European Mantis, Mantis religiosa. From Europe, late 1899
Narrow-winged Mantis, Tenodera angustipennis. From Asia, 1930
Chinese Mantid, Tenodera aridifolia. From China, 1896

Family Tarachodidae
Mediterranean Mantis, Iris oratoria. From Africa and India


Order Blattodea – Cockroaches and Termites

Family Blaberidae
Discoid Cockroach, Blaberus. Several species. From the Neotropics
No common name, Blaberus atropos. From the Neotropics
No common name, Blaberus discoidalis. From the Neotropics, before 1960
No common name, Epilampra maya. From Mesoamerica, 1982
Lobster Cockroach, Nauphoeta cinerea. From East Africa
Green Banana Cockroach, Panchlora nivea. From Cuba
Surinam Cockroach, Pycnoscelus surinamensis. From Asia

Family Blattidae
Oriental Cockroach, Blatta orientalis. Probably from Africa or Russia
No common name, Eurycotis lixa. From Jamaica, 1952
American Cockroach, Periplaneta americana. From Africa, 1700-1800s
Australian Cockroach, Periplaneta australasiae. From Asia
Brown Cockroach, Periplaneta brunnea From Africa
Smoky Brown Cockroach, Periplaneta fuliginosa. From Africa
Turkestan Cockroach, Shelfordella lateralis. From central Asia

Family Ectobiidae
Asian Cockroach, Blattella asahinai. From Asia
German Cockroach, Blattella germanica. From Europe
Field Cockroach, Blattella vaga. From Asia
Tawny Cockroach, Ectobius lapponicus. From Europe
No common name, Ectobius lucidus. From Europe, 1990
Spotted Mediterranean Cockroach, Ectobius pallidus. From Europe
Forest Cockroach, Ectobius sylvestris. From Eurasia, 1980s
No common name, Luridiblatta trivittata. From the Mediterranean, very recently
No common name, Neoblattella detersa. From West Indies, ca. 1984
Brown-banded Cockroach Supella longipalpa. From Africa

Family Rhinotermitidae - Subterranean termites
Formosan Subterranean Termite, Coptotermes formosanus. From Asia


Order Psocodea

Family Amphientomidae – Tropical Barklice
No common name, Stimulopalpus japonicus. From Japan, 1950s

Family Caeciliusidae – Lizard Barklice
No common name, Maoripsocus. From Australia, recently

Family Ectopsocidae – Outer Barklice
Large-Winged Psocid, Ectopsocopsis cryptomeriae. From the Palaearctic?
No common name, Ectopsocus richardsi. Probably introduced
No common name, Ectopsocus strauchi. From w. Mediterranean?
No common name, Ectopsocus vachoni. From Africa and/or Asia

Family Elipsocidae – Damp Barklice
No common name, Cuneopalpus cyanops. From Europe
No common name, Elipsocus hyalinus. From Europe
No common name, Propsocus pulchripennis. From Australia & Tasmania

Family Hemipsocidae – Leaf Litter Barklice
No common name, Hemipsocus chloroticus. From Japan/Southeast Asia

Family Liposcelididae – Booklice
No common name, Liposcelis decolor. Probably introduced
No common name, Liposcelis entomophila. Probably introduced
No common name, Liposcelis pearmani. From the Old World

Myopsocidae – Mouse-like Barklice
No common name, Myopsocus sp. From TBA, 2004

Family Pachytroctidae – Thick Barklice
No common name, Nanopsocus oceanicus. Probably introduced

Family Philotarsidae – Loving Barklice
No common name, Philotarsus parviceps. From Europe

Family Pseudocaeciliidae – False Lizard Barklice
No common name, Ophiodopelma sp.? From Borneo, very recently

Family Psocidae – Common Barklice
No common name, Trichadenotecnum majus? From Palaearctic

Family Psyllipsocidae – Cave Barklice
No common name, Dorypteryx domestica. From Europe

Family Stenopsocidae – Narrow Barklice
No common name, Graphopsocus cruciatus? Probably from Europe or Asia, 1930s

Family Trichopsocidae – Lash-faced Psocids
No common name, Trichopsocus acuminatus. From Europe
No common name, Trichopsocus clarus. From Europe
No common name, Trichopsocus dalii. From Italy, Peru and Mexico?

Family Trogiidae – Granary Booklice
No common name, Cerobasis annulata. Probably introduced
Larger Pale Booklouse, Trogium pulsatorium. Probably introduced


Order Hemiptera – True Bugs, Cicadas, Hoppers, Aphids and Allies


Suborder Auchenorrhyncha – Free-living Hemipterans

Family Caliscelidae – Piglet Bugs
No common name, Caliscelis bonellii. From Europe, 1965

Family Cercopidae – Spittlebugs
European Alder Spittlebug Aphrophora alni. From Europe, 1927
No common name, Lepyronia coleoptrata. From Europe, 1940
Lined Spittlebug, Neophilaenus lineatus. From Europe, 1876
Meadow Spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius. From Europe

Family Cicadellidae – Leafhoppers
No common name, Aguriahana stellulata. From Europe, 1920
No common name, Alebra wahlbergi. From Europe, 1920
No common name, Allygus atomarius. From Europe, 1890
No common name, Allygus mixtus. From Europe, 1919
No common name, Anoscopus albiger. From Europe, 1888
No common name, Anoscopus flavostriatus. From Europe, 1898
No common name, Anoscopus serratulae. From Europe, 1897
No common name, Aphrodes bicinctus. From Europe, 1905
No common name, Aphrodes costatus. From Europe, 1884
Silver Maple Leafhopper, Athysanus argentarius. From Europe, 1920
No common name, Balclutha rosea. From Europe
No common name, Balclutha rubrostriata. From Europe
No common name, Deltocephalus nigripennis. 2012
No common name, Doratura stylata. From Europe, 1923
No common name, Edwardsiana prunicola. From Europe, 1930
Rose Leafhopper, Edwardsiana rosae. From Europe, 1890
No common name, Elymana sulphurella. From Europe, 1935
No common name, Empoasca luda. From Europe, 1917
No common name, Eupteryx atropunctata. From Europe, 1942
Ligurian Leafhopper, Eupteryx decemnotata. From Europe, 2008
Sage Leafhopper, Eupteryx melissae. From Europe, 1903
No common name, Euscelis sordidus. From Europe, 1925
No common name, Euscelis variegatus. From Europe, early 1950s
No common name, Evacanthus interruptus. From Europe, 1979
No common name, Fagocyba douglasi. From Europe, 1976
Privet Leafhopper, Fieberiella florii. From Europe, 1918
No common name, Graphocraerus ventralis. From Europe, 1950
No common name, Grypotes puncticollis. From Europe, 1988
No common name, Hishimonus sellatus. From Asia, 2010
No common name, Iassus lanio. From Europe, 2009
No common name, Idiocerus fulgidus. From Europe, 1977
No common name, Idiocerus stigmaticalis. From Europe, 1924
Japanese Maple Leafhopper, Japananus hyalinus. From Japan, 1897
No common name, Latalus ocellaris. From Europe, 1942
Rubus Leafhopper, Macropsis fuscula. From Europe, 1950
No common name, Macropsis graminea. From Europe, 1918
No common name, Macropsis infuscata. From Europe, 2006
No common name, Macropsis notata. From Europe, 1922
No common name, Macropsis ocellata. From Europe, 1872
Beet Leafhopper, Neoaliturus tenellus. 1896
No common name, Oncopsis flavicollis. From Europe, 2007
No common name, Opsius stactogalus. From Europe, ca. 1900
No common name, Orientus ishidae. From Asia, ca. 1919
No common name, Pagaronia minor. From Japan, 2005
No common name, Paramesus major. From Europe, 1919
No common name, Pediopsis tiliae. From Europe, 1934
Brazilian Leafhopper, Protalebrella brasiliensis. (?)
No common name, Protalebrella tertia. From South America, 1982
No common name, Rhytidodus decimaquartus
Bramble Leafhopper, Ribautiana tenerrima. From Europe, 1947
European Elm Leafhopper, Ribautiana ulmi. From Europe, 1886
No common name, Sophonia orientalis. From Taiwan, 1996
No common name, Sorhoanus pascuellus. From Europe, 1872
No common name, Thamnotettix zelleri. From Europe, 1995
Oak Leafhopper, Typhlocyba quercus. From Europe, 1946
No common name, Zygina flammigera. From Europe, 1950

Family Delphacidae – Delphacid Planthoppers Planthoppers
Sugarcane Planthopper, Perkinsiella saccharicida . 1982
No common name, Sogatella kolophon. From Old World tropics?
No common name, Toya propinqua. From Europe, 1880

Family Flatidae – Flatid Planthoppers
Torpedo bug, Siphanta acuta. From Australia, 1983

Family Membracidae – Treehoppers
No common name, Gargara. Several introduced species. Paleaearctic, 1935

Suborder Heteroptera – True Bugs

Family Anthocoridae - Minute Pirate Bugs
No common name, Amphiareus obscuriceps. ca. 2005
No common name, Montandoniola confusa. From the Old World, 2003
No common name, Orius minutus. From the Palaearctic, 1930
No common name, Xylocoris cursitans. From Europe

Family Artheneidae
Bulrush Bug, Chilacis typhae. From the Palaearctic, first reported 1987
No common name, Holcocranum saturejae. From the Palaearctic, first reported 1995

Family Berytidae – Stilt Bugs
No common name, Berytinus minor. From the Palaearctic, 1929

Family Blissidae
No common name, Ischnodemus variegatus. From South and Central America, 2000

Family Cimicidae – Bed Bugs
Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius. From Europe, by early colonists

Family Coreidae – Leaffooted Bugs
No common name, Centrocoris variegatus. From the Mediterranean, 2009
Giant Sweetpotato Bug Spartocera batatas. From Surinam/Caribbean, 1995

Family Corixidae – Water Boatmen
No common name, Micronecta ludibunda. From Asia

Family Cydnidae – Burrowing Bugs
Black groundbug, Microporus nigrita. From the Palaearctic, 1977
No common name, Scaptocoris castaneus. From South America, 1963

Family Gelastocoridae – Toad Bugs
No common name, Nerthra fuscipes. From the Neotropics, 2003

Family Heterogastridae
No common name, Heterogaster urticae. From Europe, very recently

Family Leptopodidae – Spiny-Legged Bugs
No common name, Patapius spinosus. From Europe, 1941

Family Lygaeidae – Seed Bugs
Birch Catkin Bug, Kleidocerys resedae. From Europe

Family Microphysidae – Minute Bladder Bugs
No common name, Myrmedobia exilis. From the Palaearctic, 1980

Family Miridae – Plant Bugs
Alfalfa Plant Bug, Adelphocoris lineolatus. From the Palaearctic, 1922
No common name, Amblytylus nasutus. From Europe, 1928
No common name, Apolygus lucorum. From the Palaearctic, 1885
No common name, Asciodema obsoleta. From Europe, 1966
No common name, Atractotomus magnicornis. From Europe, 1919
No common name, Atractotomus mali. From Europe, 1924
Black-kneed Capsid, Blepharidopterus angulatus. From Europe, 1922
No common name, Bryocoris pteridis. From the Palaearctic, 2000s
No common name, Camptozygum aequale. From Europe, 1938
No common name, Campylomma verbasci. From Europe, 1887
No common name, Campyloneura virgula. From Europe, 1957
No common name, Capsus ater. From the Palaearctic, 1872
No common name, Caulotops distanti. From the Neotropics, 1980s
Potato Bug, Closterotomus norwegicus. From the Palaearctic, 1876
No common name, Compsidolon salicellum. From the Palaearctic, early 1960s
No common name, Coridromius chenopoderis. From Australia, recently
No common name, Deraeocoris ruber. From Europe, 1878
No common name, Fulvius anthocoroides. Recently
No common name, Fulvius subnitens.
No common name, Halticus apterus. From Europe, 1917
No common name, Heterotoma planicornis. From Europe, 1917
No common name, Lepidargyrus ancorifer. From Europe, 1912
Meadow Plant Bug, Leptopterna dolabrata. From Europe, 1832
No common name, Lopus decolor. From Europe, 1957
Delicate Apple-capsid, Malacocoris chlorizans. From Europe, 1959
No common name, Megaloceroea recticornis. From Europe, 1914
No common name, Megalocoleus molliculus. From Europe, 1922
No common name, Orthocephalus coriaceus. From Europe, 1917
No common name, Orthocephalus saltator. From Europe, 1917
No common name, Orthotylus flavosparsus. From Europe, 1872
No common name, Orthotylus virescens. From Europe, 1922
No common name, Phylus coryli. From Europe, 1982
No common name, Phytocoris tiliae. From the Palaearctic, 1924
No common name, Phytocoris varipes. From the Palaearctic, 1956
No common name, Pilophorus confusus. From Europe, 1976
No common name, Pilophorus perplexus. From Europe, 1914
No common name, Pinalitus rubricatus. From the Palaearctic, 1974
No common name, Pithanus maerkelii. From Europe, 1915
No common name, Plagiognathus arbustorum. From Europe, 1954
Trefoil Plant Bug, Plagiognathus chrysanthemi. From Europe, 1887
No common name, Plagiognathus vitellinus. From Eurasia, 1961
No common name, Psallus haematodes. From Europe, 1980
No common name, Psallus variabilis. From Europe, 1980
Two-spotted Grass Bug, Stenotus binotatus. From the Palaearctic, 1978
No common name, Taylorilygus apicalis. From the Palaearctic, 1876

Family Nabidae – Damsel Bugs
Grey Damsel Bug, Anaptus major. From the Palaearctic, recently

Family Oxycarenidae
No common name, Metopoplax ditomoides. From Europe, 1998
Cotton Seed Bug, Oxycarenus hyalinipennis. From the Caribbean (originally Africa), 2010

Family Pentatomidae – Stink Bugs
African Cluster Bug, Agonoscelis puberula. From Africa, 1990
No common name, Andrallus spinidens. From the Old World,
Bagrada Bug, Bagrada hilaris. From Africa, 2008
No common name, Euschistus acuminatus. From the Caribbean, 1983
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha halys. From Asia
Harlequin Bug, Murgantia histrionica. From Mexico, 1864
Southern Green Stink Bug, Nezara viridula. From Europe
No common name, Oebalus ypsilongriseus. From South America, early 1990s
No common name, Picromerus bidens. From Europe, 1932

Family Plataspidae
Bean Plataspid, Megacopta cribraria. From Asia, Australia, recently

Family Pyrrhocoridae – Red Bugs
Firebug, Pyrrhocoris apterus. From Europe, 2008
No common name, Scantius aegyptius. From the Mediterranean, 2009

Family Reduviidae – Assassin Bugs
Masked Hunter, Reduvius personatus. From Europe

Family Rhopalidae – Scentless Plant Bugs
No common name, Rhopalus tigrinus. From Europe, 1977

Family Rhyparochromidae – Dirt-colored Seed Bugs
No common name, Dieuches armatipes. From Africa, 1992
No common name, Drymus brunneus. Probably from Europe, 1996
No common name, Lamprodema maurum. From Europe, 1913
No common name, Megalonotus sabulicola. From Europe, 1921
No common name, Plinthisus brevipennis. From Europe
No common name, Raglius alboacuminatus. From Europe, recently
No common name Rhyparochromus vulgaris. From Europe, recently
No common name, Stygnocoris rusticus. From Europe, 1907
No common name, Stygnocoris sabulosus. From Europe, 1913
Mediterranean Seed Bug, Xanthochilus saturnius. From Europe, recently

Family Tingidae – Lace Bugs
No common name, Acalypta parvula. From Europe or Russia
Foliaceous Lace Bug, Derephysia foliacea. From the Palaearctic, 1968
No common name, Dictyla echii. From Europe, late 1950s
No common name, Dictyonota fuliginosa. From Europe, late 1950s
Azalea Lace Bug, Stephanitis pyrioides. From Japan
Andromeda Lace Bug, Stephanitis takeyai. From Japan, 1945
Cassava Lace Bug, Vatiga illudens. From West Indies, 2009


Suborder Sternorrhyncha – Plant-parasitic Hemipterans

Family Adelgidae
Eastern Spruce Gall Adelgid, Adelges abietis, from Europe, before 1900
Balsam Woolly Adelgid, Adelges piceae
Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, Adelges tsugae, from Southeast Asia

Family Aleyrodidae – Whiteflies
Citrus Whitefly, Aleurocanthus woglumi. From Asia, 1937
Giant Whitefly, Aleurodicus dugesii. From Mexico, 1992
Woolly Whitefly, Aleurothrixus floccosus. From the Neotropics, early 1900s
Silverleaf Whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii. Probably from India, late 1880s
Citrus Whitefly, Dialeurodes citri. Probably from India
Ash Whitefly, Siphoninus phillyreae. From Europe
No common name, Trialeurodes vaporariorum

Family Aphalaridae
Spotted Gum Lerp Psyllid, Eucalyptolyma maideni. From Australia
Red Gum Lerp, Glycaspis brimblecombei. From Australia, 1998

Family Aphididae – Aphids
No common name, Acyrthosiphon lactucae. From the Palaearctic (Europe), 1943
Pea Aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. From Europe, 1877
No common name, Amphorophora ampullata. From Europe, 1887
No common name, Anoecia corni. From Europe, 1897
No common name, Aphis chloris. From Europe, 1980s
No common name, Aphis craccae. From Palaearctic, 1965
No common name, Aphis craccivora. From the Palaearctic, 1890
Black Bean Aphid, Aphis fabae. Probably from Europe
Soybean Aphid, Aphis glycine. From Asia, recently
No common name, Aphis gossypii. From the Palaearctic, 1852
Ivy Aphid, Aphis hederae. From Europe, early 1900s
No common name, Aphis nasturtii. From the Palaearctic
Oleander Aphid, Aphis nerii. Probably from the Mediterranean
Apple aphid, Aphis pomi. From Europe, in 1840s
No common name, Aphis sambuci. From Europe, 1847
No common name, Aphis thalictri. From Europe, 1999
No common name, Aphis urticata. From Europe, 1913
No common name, Aphis spiraecola. From Europe, 1907
Foxglove Aphid, Aulacorthum solani. From the Palaearctic, 1879
No common name, Brachycaudus cardui. From Europe, 1887
Leafcurl plum aphid, Brachycaudus helichrysi. From Europe, 1893
No common name, Brachycaudus tragopogonis. From the Palaearctic, 1993
Mealy Cabbage Aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae. From Europe
No common name, Callipterinella calliptera. From Europe, 1909
No common name, Capitophorus elaeagni. From the Palaearctic, 1892
No common name, Capitophorus hippophaes. From Europe, circa 1895
Fringed Orchid Aphid, Cerataphis orchidearum. From East Asia, 1923
No common name, Ceruraphis eriophori. From Europe, 1935
No common name, Cinara pilicornis. From the Palaearctic, 1912
Pine aphid, Cinara pinea. From the Palaearctic, 1919
Hazelnut Aphid, Corylobium avellanae. Very recently
No common name, Drepanosiphum oregonensis. From Europe, 1914
Linden Aphid, Eucallipterus tiliae. From Europe, 1890
Mint aphid, Eucarazzia elegans. From Europe, 1984
European Birch Aphid, Euceraphis punctipennis. From Europe, 1847
No common name, Eulachnus rileyi. From Europe, 1866
No common name, Forda, 2 species. From Europe,
Chenopodium aphid, Hayhurstia atriplicis. From the Palearctic (Europe), 1837
Coriander aphid Hyadaphis coriandri. From Central Asia, 1997
Fennel aphid Hyadaphis foeniculi. From Central Asia, 1879
Honeysuckle aphid Hyadaphis tataricae. From Central Asia, 1979
Mealy Plum Aphid, Hyalopterus pruni. From the Mediterranean, 1879
Sowthistle aphid, Hyperomyzus lactucae. From the Palaearctic, 1878
No common name, Hyperomyzus pallidus. From the Palaearctic, 1914
Barberry Aphid, Liosomaphis berberidis. From Europe, 1846
No common name, Longicaudus trirhodus. From Europe, 1908
No common name, Macrosiphoniella millefolii. From Europe, 1937
Chrysanthemum Aphid, Macrosiphoniella sanborni. From East Asia, 1891
Purple-spotted Lily Aphid, Macrosiphum lilii. From the Palaearctic?, 1878
Rose Aphid, Macrosiphum rosae. From Europe, 1841
No common name, Metopolophium dirhodum. From the Palaearctic, 1910
Balsam Twig Aphid, Mindarus abietinus. From Europe, 1879
Lesser Rose Aphid, Myzaphis rosarum. From Europe, 1906
Black Cherry Aphid, Myzus cerasi. From Europe, 1916
No common name, Myzus lythri. From Europe, 1916
Green Peach Aphid, Myzus persicae. From East Asia, 1841
Podocarpus Aphid, Neophyllaphis podocarpi. From Australasia, 1954
Poplar Spiral-gall Aphid, Pemphigus spyrothecae. From Europe, 1972
Norway Maple Aphid, Periphyllus lyropictus. From Europe, 1847
Common Maple Aphid, Periphyllus testudinaceus. From Europe, 1924
Hop Aphid, Phorodon humuli. From Europe, 1863
Woolly Beech Aphid, Phyllaphis fagi. From Europe
No common name, Pleotrichophorus, 2 species. From the Palaearctic
No common name, Pterocomma populeum. From Europe, 1904
No common name, Pterocomma salicis. From the Palaearctic, 1886
No common name, Rhopalomyzus lonicerae. From Europe, 1912
Waterlily Aphid, Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae. From Europe, 1890
Crapemyrtle Aphid, Sarucallis kahawaluokalani. From Asia
Greenbug, Schizaphis graminum. From the Palaearctic, 1884
Asian Woolly Hackberry Aphid, Shivaphis celti. From Asia, 1990s
English Grain Aphid, Sitobion avenae. From Eurasia
Bamboo Aphid, Takecallis arundinariae. From Asia
No common name, Tetraneura ulmi. From the Palaearctic, 1890
No common name, Therioaphis riehmi. From Europe, 1948
Yellow Clover Aphid, Therioaphis trifolii. From Europe, 1879
No common name, Trama rara. From Europe, 1929
No common name, Tuberculatus, 2 species. From the Palaearctic
Giant Willow Aphid, Tuberolachnus salignus. From Europe, 1872
No common name, Uroleucon cirsii. From Europe, 1956
No common name, Uroleucon sonchi. From Europe

Family Coccidae – Soft Scale Insects
Barnacle Scale, Ceroplastes cirripediformis. From Asia
Red Wax Scale, Ceroplastes rubens.
Fig Scale, Ceroplastes rusci. From Africa?
Chinese Wax Scale, Ceroplastes sinensis. From Asia
Green Scale, Coccus viridis. From the Neotropics, 1942
Kuno Scale, Eulecanium kunoense. From East Asia, 1896
Mango Shield Scale, Milviscutulus mangiferae.
No common name, Phalacrococcus howertoni. Origin unknown, 2008
Pyriform Scale, Protopulvinaria pyriformis. Probably non-native
Iceplant Scale, Pulvinariella mesembryanthemi. From the Palaearctic

Family Diaspididae – Armored Scale Insects
Cycad aulacaspis scale, Aulacaspis yasumatsui. From Asia
Elongate Hemlock Scale, Fiorinia externa. Probably from Japan
Tea Scale, Fiorinia theae. From Asia, before 1908
Oystershell Scale, Lepidosaphes ulmi
False Oleander Scale, Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli. From China, 1942
Citrus Snow Scale, Unaspis citri. From East Asia
Euonymus Scale, Unaspis euonymi

Family Eriococcidae – Felt Scales
No common name, Cryptococcus fagisuga. From the Palaearctic, 1890s
European Elm Scale, Gossyparia spuria. From Europe

Family Homotomidae
Fig Psylla, Homotoma ficus. From the Mediterranean

Family Liviidae
Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri. From Asia

Family Monophlebidae – Giant Scale Insects
No common name, Crypticerya genistae. From Brazil, recently
Cottony Cushion Scale, Icerya Purchasi. From Australia, 1866

Family Pseudococcidae – Mealybugs
Noxious Bamboo Mealybug, Antonina pretiosa. From East Asia
Striped Mealybug, Ferrisia virgata. From tropical Africa
Apple Mealybug, Phenacoccus aceris. Probably from Europe
Citrus Mealybug, Planococcus citri.
Long-tailed Mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus. From the tropics

Family Psyllidae – Jumping Plant Lice
No common name, Acizzia jamatonica. From E Asia, 2006
Acacia Psyllid, Acizzia uncatoides. From Australia
Pear Psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola. From Europe, 1832
Tipu Psyllid, Platycorypha nigrivirga. From S. America, 2008

Family Triozidae
Eugenia Psyllid, Trioza eugeniae. From Australia


Order Thysanoptera – Thrips

Family Phlaeothripidae – Tube-tailed Thrips
Cuban Laurel Thrips, Gynaikothrips ficorum. From Southeast Asia, 1880s
Myoporum Thrips, Klambothrips myopori. From Australia/New Zealand, recently


Family Thripidae
Greenhouse Thrips, Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis. From South America, 1870s
Chilli Thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis. From Southeast Asia or the Indian subcontinent; recently
Onion Thrips, Thrips tabaci.

..............................................................................................


Part II. Non-native Holometabolous insects

Order Coleoptera
Order Hymenoptera
Order Lepidoptera
Order Diptera
Order Siphonaptera


..............................................................................................

Class Collembola – Springtails and allies


Order Entomobryomorpha – Elongate-bodied Springtails

Family Entomobryidae
No common name, Entomobrya nicoleti. From Europe
Cotton Springtail, Entomobrya unostrigata. From Europe
No common name, Willowsia platani. From Europe, recently

Family Isotomidae
No common name, Hydroisotoma schaefferi. Probably introduced
No common name, Vertagopus arboreus. Probably introduced

Family Paronellidae
No common name, Cyphoderus similis. From the Neotropics


Order Symphypleona – Globular Springtails

Family Dicyrtomidae
No common name, Dicyrtoma fusca. From Europe
No common name, Dicyrtomina minuta. From Europe

Family Sminthuridae
No common name, Allacma fusca. From Europe

Family Sminthurididae
Water springtail, Sminthurides aquaticus . From Europe


Class Chilopoda – Centipedes

Geophilomorpha – Soil Centipedes

Family Geophilidae
No common name, Geophilus flavus. From Europe

Family Schendylidae
No common name, Schendyla nemorensis. Holarctic, probably introduced


Lithobiomorpha – Stone Centipedes

Family Henicopidae
No common name, Lamyctes emarginatus. Holarctic, probably introduced

Family Lithobiidae
No common name, Lithobius forficatus. From Europe
No common name, Lithobius microps. Probably introduced from Europe

Order Scolopendromorpha – Tropical Centipedes

Family Cryptopidae
No common name, Cryptops hortensis. From Europe


Order Scutigeromorpha – House Centipedes

Family Scutigeridae
House Centipede, Scutigera coleoptrata. From the Mediterranean region


Class Diplopoda – Millipedes


Order Julida

Family Blaniulidae
No common name, Blaniulus guttulatus. From Europe

Family Julidae
No common name, Brachyiulus. From Europe
No common name, Cylindroiulus caeruleocinctus. From Europe
No common name, Ophyiulus pilosus. From Europe


Order Spirobolida

Family Rhinocricidae
No common name, Anadenobolus monilicornis. From the Caribbean
No common name, Eurhinocricus. From the Caribbean, 2006

Family Trigoniulidae
Rusty millipede, Trigoniulus corallinus. From Thailand and Myanmar


Order Polydesmida

Family Paradoxosomatidae
No common name, Akamptogonus novarae. From Australia
No common name, Asiomorpha coarctata. From Asia
Greenhouse Millipede, Oxidus gracilis. From Asia

Family Polydesmidae
Greenhouse Millipede, Oxidus gracilis. From Asia
No common name, Polydesmus. From Europe

Family Pyrgodesmidae
No common name, Poratia disparata.

Class Malacostraca – Malacostracans


Order Amphipoda

Family Talitridae
Lawn Shrimp, Arcitalitrus sylvaticus . From Australia, 1800s


Order Isopoda

Family Armadillidiidae – Pillbugs
No common name, Armadillidium nasatum. From Northern Europe
Wood Louse, Armadillidium vulgare

Family Cylisticidae
Curly Woodlouse, Cylisticus convexus. From Central Europe

Family Ligiidae – Rock Slaters
Sea Slater, Ligia oceanica. From W. Europe

Family Oniscidae – Sowbugs
European Sowbug, Oniscus asellus. From Europe

Family Philosciidae
No common name, Philoscia muscorum. From Europe

Family Platyarthridae
No common name, Niambia capensis. From Africa
Ant woodlouse, Platyarthrus hoffmannseggii. From Europe?

Family Porcellionidae
No common name, Porcellio dilatatus
No common name, Porcellio laevis. From Europe
No common name, Porcellio scaber. From Europe
No common name, Porcellio spinicornis
No common name, Porcellionides pruinosus. From so. Europe

Family Trachelipodidae
No common name, Trachelipus rathkii. From Central Europe

Family Trichoniscidae
No common name, Hyloniscus riparius. From Central Europe
No common name, Trichoniscus pusillus. From Europe


Order Decapoda


Family Grapsidae – Marsh Crabs, Shore Crabs, and Talon Crabs
Japanese Shore Crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus. From Asia

Family Porcellanidae – Porcelain Crabs
Green Porcelain Crab, Petrolisthes armatus. From Brazil?

Family Portunidae – Swimming Crabs
Green Crab, Carcinus maenas. From northeast Atlantic Ocean and Baltic Sea

Grasshopper
Chorthippus brunneus

Paradoxosomatidae
All Paradoxosomatidae are non-native.

1. Oxidus gracilis belongs to family Paradoxosomatidae.

2. Akamptogonus novarae should be added.

Centipedes
In addition to the soil centipede Geophilus flavus (http://bugguide.net/node/view/925018) mentioned by Tom Murray below, there are a few more European centipedes that are found in North America. A known introduction is Lithobius microps (http://bugguide.net/node/view/907459).

BUT ...

Two European species which are also found in North America, are believed to be introduced, however, there isn't much evidence that they aren't naturally Holarctic species. They are Schendyla nemorensis (http://bugguide.net/node/view/905726) and Lamyctes emarginatus (http://bugguide.net/node/view/907457).

Perhaps someday genetic work will show conclusively which species are native and which are introduced, but for now we can only guess. I am particularly suspicious that L. emarginatus may naturally occur in North America because it is parthenogenetic and could easily have become established by arriving on "rafts," and also because it appears to have a sister species in North America (L. pius, but it may be a synonym). Schendyla nemorensis I also suspect is native based on its continent-wide distribution, all the way to Alaska.

 
Thanks
Decisions! Decisions! What would be better: to include S. nemorensis and L. emarginatus with question marks, or do nothing and wait?

 
Probably include them with qu
Probably include them with question marks. I don't know if/when the true origin of these centipedes will ever be established.

Crab
Petrolisthes armatus--believed to be native to Brazil.

Soil Centipede from Europe

introduced millipede

Spider
Meriola arcifera, Corinnidae -- native to central Chile, Argentina, and Bolivia, but apparently introduced to California.(1)

Centipede
Lithobius forficatus (Lithobiomorpha » Lithobiidae). From Europe.

Spider
Tenuiphantes tenuis, Linyphiidae

Spider

Periplaneta brunnea has a species page with images now

Diplostyla concolor (Linyphiidae) - spider
http://bugguide.net/node/view/800423 (Rod Crawford says it's introduced.)

Ectobius lucidus
Ectobius lucidus(1), from southern Europe, first record 1999.

First record for Ectobius sylvestris is 1980, for E. pallidus is 1948.

Order Opiliones - Harvestmen
Couple more:
Rilaena triangularis, family Phalangiidae
Paroligolophus agrestis, family Phalangiidae

couple taxonomic changes
Just a note that under family Agelenidae in the spider section, Tegenaria atrica and Tegenaria gigantea were synonymized and then moved to a new genus. So the new name is Eratigena atrica. When I combined/moved the species pages in the guide, I did it wrong with T. atrica, so unfortunately that old link doesn't just re-route to the right place. =(
Also, Tegenaria agrestis is now Eratigena agrestis.

 
Thanks
I think I got it right now. Take a look. Do you have more non-native spiders hiding somewhere?

 
Looks perfect
Thanks, Beatriz!
I keep meaning to do another thorough sweep for other introductions, but just remembered this one:
Arctosa perita (Lycosidae) - looks like the first wolf spider for the list! The literature doesn't say what country it's probably from (just says "introduced in recent decades"), but I assume Europe even though it's also found in Asia and North Africa.

 
duplicate post
duplicate post

new ref items
(1)(2)(3)

Spider, Freya ambigua (Salticidae)
Just remembered this one - http://bugguide.net/node/view/759701. Native to South America.

Plinthisus brevipennis
http://bugguide.net/node/view/828382
Courtesy of John Barry from WA who collected it and Geoff Scudder from UBC who examined and identified the specimen.

Bellardia bayeri

Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green)
Pseudococcidae. May have missed seeing it, but Pink Hibiscus Mealy Bug has neither guide page nor photos.

Origin unknown (extant in a number of tropical and sub-tropical environments). Detected in Florida 2002, confirmed Texas 2008. Polyphagous.

 
No images yet
We only include those species present in the guide. So, provide us with a photo and we will create a page and add it to this list. Thanks.


 
Thanks
What a list! I am still busy with it. Bracing myself for the next installment :)

 
wow. what a [nice/nasty] batch
terrific job, Mandy.

 
.
Thanks, =v=, and there will be some more to come later, too. That was a hefty batch, I'll give it a rest for a bit. :-)

Poratia disparata
See bottom left of http://www.nadiplochilo.com/fpyrgodesmidae.html which corresponds to image 92599.

Spider, Zoropsis spinimana
I don't see this one listed under spiders.
http://bugguide.net/node/view/17402
According to Cal Academy: "Native to the Mediterranean coastal countries and northern Africa..."

Salticidae
The following salticids are nonnative. There are quite likely others I am missing, and there's at least one more that's a suspected exotic (Salticus scenicus).

Pseudeuophrys erratica
Sitticus ammophilus
Sitticus fasciger
Sitticus pubescens
Menemerus bivittatus
Menemerus semilimbatus
Hakka himeshimensis
Hasarius adansoni

 
Thanks
Quite a list. I got them all, included Salticus scenicus conditionally. It can be removed later on if necessary. I always wonder how many more species should be in this list. Keep me informed, please.

 
wow... that's a hefty bunch
thank for reporting them

Fulvius spp.?
Fulvius subnitens(1)(2) and possibly other species in the genus.

Steatoda nobilis
First one posted here.

date for Amphiareus obscuriceps
earliest known collection date is 1983 (1)

Bean Plataspid is listed twice
under two different families.

Cydnidae
Aethus nigritus

 
name change
This bug is now going under the name Microporus nigrita.

 
who knew...
thanks much, Brad

Sawfly
(1)

Trogulus tricarinatus
Is this the first Opilione on the list? From what I could find out it's from Europe, Asia and north Africa.

non-natives in BC
a very impressive (in fact, horrifying) list of >720 insect spp.(1)

first corixid for the list
Micronecta ludibunda:


A mayfly
It seems as though Cloeon dipterum is introduced from Europe.

 
really... isn't it a true holarct?
"Cloeon dipterum <...> in light of its Holarctic and better understood North American distribution pattern clearly is not adventive in North America." (Randolph et al. 2002)
thanks to Brady Richards for directing me to that paper.

 

 
 
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