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Species Stenopelmus rufinasus - Water Fern Weevil

tiny weevil - Stenopelmus rufinasus Curc. - Stenopelmus rufinasus Curc - Stenopelmus rufinasus Stenopelmus rufinasus Gyllenhal - Stenopelmus rufinasus Stenopelmus rufinasus Gyllenhal - Stenopelmus rufinasus Stenopelmus rufinasus Gyllenhal - Stenopelmus rufinasus 5976 - Stenopelmus rufinasus Snout beetle - Stenopelmus rufinasus
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Coleoptera (Beetles)
Suborder Polyphaga (Water, Rove, Scarab, Long-horned, Leaf and Snout Beetles)
No Taxon (Series Cucujiformia)
Superfamily Curculionoidea (Snout and Bark Beetles)
Family Brachyceridae
Subfamily Erirhininae (Marsh Weevils)
Subtribe Stenopelmina
Genus Stenopelmus
Species rufinasus (Water Fern Weevil)
Other Common Names
Azolla Weevil
Explanation of Names
Stenopelmus rufinasus Gyllenhal 1835
rufinasus (L). 'red nose' (1)
Size
1.8-2.0 mm (2)
Range
widely dist. in US (CA-FL-NJ-OR) / Mex. (3)(4)
native to our area, introduced to many temperate areas around the globe both accidentally (along with its host, the invasive Azolla filiculoides) as well as deliberately as a biological control.
Food
host: mosquitofern (Azolla, Azollaceae) (5)
Life Cycle
The females deposit eggs in holes that they have chewed in the water fern, and the hole is covered with a cap of frass. The larvae feed voraciously and are capable of eating several plants a day (McConnachis et al. 2004)
Print References
McConnachis A.J., Hill M.P., Byrne M.J. (2004) Field assessment of a frond-feeding weevil, a successful biological control agent of red waterfern, Azolla filiculoides, in southern Africa. Biological Control 29: 326-331.
Pemberton R.W., Bodle J.M. (2009) Native North American azolla weevil, Stenopelmus rufinasus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), uses the invasive Old World Azolla pinnata as a host plant. Florida Entomologist 92: 153-155 (Full Text)
Works Cited
1.Dictionary of Word Roots and Combining Forms
Donald J. Borror. 1960. Mayfield Publishing Company.
2.Weevils of South Carolina (Coleoptera: Nemonychidae, Attelabidae, Brentidae, Ithyceridae, and Curculionidae).
Janet C. Ciegler. 2010. Clemson University, Clemson, S.C. 276 pp.
3. A distributional checklist of the beetles (Coleoptera) of Florida.
Peck & Thomas. 1998. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville. 180 pp.
4.Annotated checklist of the weevils (Curculionidae sensu lato) of North America, Central America, and the West Indies...
O'Brien C.W., Wibmer G.J. 1982. Mem. Am. Ent. Inst. 34: x+382 pp.
5.A catalog of Coleoptera of America north of Mexico. Curculionidae: Erirhininae
O'Brien C.W., Anderson D.M. 1996. USDA Agriculture handbook no. 529-143f. 40 pp.