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Genus Papilio

Canadian Tiger Swallowtail - Papilio canadensis - male Giant Swallowtail - Papilio cresphontes Preparing to Pupate  - Papilio palamedes Caterpillar - Papilio polyxenes Papilio multicaudatus W. F. Kirby - Papilio multicaudatus Two-tailed Swallowtail - Papilio multicaudatus Mystery Caterpillar - Papilio rumiko Spicebush Swallowtail - Papilio troilus - male
Show images of: caterpillars · adults · both
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Lepidoptera (Butterflies and Moths)
Superfamily Papilionoidea (Butterflies (excluding skippers))
Family Papilionidae (Swallowtails, Parnassians)
Subfamily Papilioninae
Tribe Papilionini (Fluted Swallowtails)
Genus Papilio
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Papilio Linnaeus 1758
Several Swallowtails have recently been moved to genus Pterourus(1). Some other swallowtails (Giant Swallowtail and relatives) are moved to genus Heraclides. See for instance, this site.

The following quote is from Butterflies of Canada:
"There has been a tendency to subdivide swallowtails into smaller genera to reflect groupings based on wing pattern, larval appearance, and so on, so that the tiger swallowtail group was placed in the genus Pterourus, the giant swallowtail group in the genus Heraclides, and the black swallowtail group in the genus Papilio. Miller reviewed this situation in his comprehensive revision of the higher classification of the swallowtails of the world and concluded: "Recent attempts to subdivide Papilio into genera... are unconvincing" (Miller, 1987). We follow Miller in accepting a more inclusive concept for the genus Papilio and treat these smaller groupings as species groups within Papilio."
Opler and Warren and All-Leps also do not recognize Pterourus and Heraclides as valid genera.

In the species listing under the "Taxonomy" heading above, the species P. indra thru P. zelicaon would be "typical" Papilio; the species P. eurymedon thru P. palamedes would be Pterourus; and P. aristodemus thru P. anchisiades would be Heraclides. Also, a "typical" Papilio is P. xuthus, which occurs in Hawaii.
Explanation of Names
From Latin papilio/papilionis, a butterfly (2) or moth (Internet searches).

machaon - Old World Swallowtail

brevicauda - Short-tailed Swallowtail

joanae - Ozark Swallowtail

polyxenes - Black Swallowtail

zelicaon - Anise Swallowtail

indra - Indra Swallowtail

eurymedon - Pale Tiger Swallowtail

rutulus - Western Tiger Swallowtail

canadensis - Canadian Tiger Swallowtail

appalachiensis - Appalachian Tiger Swallowtail

glaucus - Eastern Tiger Swallowtail

multicaudatus - Two-tailed Swallowtail

pilumnus - Three-tailed Swallowtail

troilus - Spicebush Swallowtail

palamedes - Palamedes Swallowtail

aristodemus - Schaus' Swallowtail

cresphontes - Giant Swallowtail

thoas - Papilio thoas

ornythion - Ornythion Swallowtail

astyalus - Broad-banded Swallowtail
rogeri - Pink-spotted Swallowtail
anchisiades - Ruby-spotted Swallowtail
Print References
Scott, p. 9 (2)
Miller, J.S. 1987. Phylogenetic Studies in the Papilioninae (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 186: 365-512.
Internet References
Works Cited
1.Florida Butterfly Caterpillars And Their Host Plants
Marc C. Minno, JERRY F. BUTLER, DONALD W. HALL. 2005. University Press Florida.
2.The Butterflies of North America: A Natural History and Field Guide
James A. Scott. 1992. Stanford University Press.