Identification, Images, & Information
For Insects, Spiders & Their Kin
For the United States & Canada

Species Coccinella septempunctata - Seven-spotted Lady Beetle


A revision of the forms of Coccinella L. occurring in America North of Mexico (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
By W. J. Brown
The Canadian Entomologist, Vol. 94, No. 8, pp. 785-808, 1962

Larval systematics of North American Coccinella L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
By Robert D. Gordon and Natalia Vandenberg
Entomologica Scandinavica, vol. 26., 1995
Illustrated key to larvae of 10 out of 12 species of Coccinella lady beetles in North America. (Does not include C. alta or C. fulgida, because larval specimens were not available at time of writing.)

The Coccinellidae (Ladybird Beetles) of Minnesota
By Stehr, W.C. 1930.
Univ. Minn. Agr. Expt. Sta., St.Paul, 1930
Stehr, W.C. 1930. The Coccinellidae (Ladybird Beetles) of Minnesota. Univ. Minn. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bull. 75. 54 pp.

Lady beetles as predators of insects other than Hemiptera.
By Evans, E.W.
Biological Control 51: 255-267., 2009
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Evans, E.W. 2009. Lady beetles as predators of insects other than Hemiptera. Biological Control 51: 255-267.

(Or: Evans, E.W. Lady beetles as predators of insects other than Hemiptera. Biological Control (2009), doi:10.1016/j.biocontrol.2009.05.011)

Abstract:

Entomophagous lady beetles often prey on a variety of insects in addition to the Hemiptera (Sternorrhyncha) for which they are well-known natural enemies. Many species (particularly those well-adapted for consuming aphids) appear opportunistic in their use of non-hemipteran prey.

Nutritional aspects of non-prey foods in the life histories of predaceous Coccinellidae.
By Lundgren, J.G.
Biological Control 51(2): 294–305., 2009
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Lundgren, J.G. 2009. Nutritional aspects of non-prey foods in the life histories of predaceous Coccinellidae. Biological Control 51(2): 294–305.

Abstract (part):

Non-prey foods are an integral component of the diets of most predaceous coccinellids. Under field conditions, numerous coccinellids consume nectar, honeydew, pollen, fruit, vegetation, and fungus. These non-prey foods are used by coccinellids to increase survival when prey is scarce, reduce mortality during diapause, fuel migration, and enhance reproductive capacity.

Ecology and behaviour of the ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae).
By Hodek, I., H.F. van Emden & A. Honěk (eds).
Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Chichester, UK, xxxvii + 561 pp., 2012
Hodek, I., H.F. van Emden & A. Honěk (eds). 2012. Ecology and behaviour of the ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae). Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Chichester, UK, xxxvii + 561 pp.

from publisher's website:

Ladybirds are probably the best known predators of aphids and coccids in the world, though this greatly underestimates the diversity of their biology. Maximising their impact on their prey is an important element in modern conservation biological control of indigenous natural enemies in contrast to the classical approach of releasing alien species.

Causes and consequences of ladybug washups in the Finger Lakes region of New York State (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).
By Denemark, E. and J. Losey.
Entomologica Americana, 116: 78-88., 2010
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Denemark, E. and J. Losey. 2010. Causes and consequences of ladybug washups in the Finger Lakes region of New York State (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Entomologica Americana, 116: 78-88.

Abstract.—We searched for and collected data on a phenomenon known as ladybug washups, in which large numbers of coccinellids aggregate on the shores of major bodies of water. Our field season lasted from 5/23/2008 until 8/12/2008 in the Finger Lakes Region of New York, United States.

Aggregation of lady beetles on the shores of lakes (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).
By Lee, R.E., Jr.
American Midland Naturalist, 104(2): 295-304., 1980
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Lee, R.E., Jr. 1980. Aggregation of lady beetles on the shores of lakes (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). American Midland Naturalist, 104(2): 295-304.

ABSTRACT: Aggregations of lady beetles, predominately Hippodamia convergens and H. tredecimpunctata, were commonly observed on the shores of lakes in the Upper Midwest during the autumn and spring. The beetles remain on the shore for only a short time, usually dispersing within 2-3 weeks. Lady beetles from autumn shore aggregations and overwintering aggregations are characterized by the presence of large amounts of fat, reproductive inactivitiy, empty digestive tracts, a skew in the sex ratio favoring females and the behavioral tendency to form aggregations.