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Species Citheronia regalis - Regal Moth - Hodges#7706

Moth? - Citheronia regalis moth? - Citheronia regalis 'Worm? - Citheronia regalis Hickory Horned Devil 01 - Citheronia regalis Regal Moth - Citheronia regalis caterpillar - Citheronia regalis Ozark, Arkansas moth - Citheronia regalis Hickory Horned Devil - Citheronia regalis
Show images of: caterpillars · adults · both
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Lepidoptera (Butterflies and Moths)
No Taxon (Moths)
Superfamily Bombycoidea
Family Saturniidae (Giant Silkworm and Royal Moths)
Subfamily Ceratocampinae (Royal Moths)
Genus Citheronia
Species regalis (Regal Moth - Hodges#7706)
Hodges Number
7706
Other Common Names
Royal Walnut Moth
Hickory Horned Devil (caterpillar)
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Citheronia regalis (Fabricius, 1793)
original combination Bombyx regalis Fabricius, 1793; Ent. Syst. 3 (1): 436
syn. Citheronia saengeri Neumoegen, 1891
syn. Citheronia infernalis Strecker, 1883
* phylogenetic sequence #224200
Numbers
Common southward; rare northward. In some places it is listed as a threatened species.
Size
Wingspan 95-155 mm; female larger than male
Caterpillar length to 140 mm
Identification
Adult: forewing gray with yellow spots and orange veins; hindwing mostly orange with yellow basal patch, and median patches at costa and inner margin
[description by Charles Covell (1)]



Larva: body varies slightly in color, but is commonly blue-green; second and third thoracic segments each bear two long and two shorter orange "horns" with black tips; abdominal segments each have four short, black "horns", and segments 2 to 8 have a pale, oblique lateral stripe
[adapted from description at U. of Florida]



See also series of images beginning here, showing complete larval development:

Range
Eastern United States: New York to Florida, west to Texas and Nebraska
Habitat
Deciduous forests
Season
Adults fly from late May to September.
Larvae usually seen from July to October while they are wandering on the ground searching for a suitable location to burrow into the soil for pupation.
Food
Larvae feed on leaves of ash, burning bush, butternut, cotton, gum, hickory, lilac, pecan, persimmon, sumac, sycamore, and walnut.
Adults do not feed.
Life Cycle
One generation per year. Eggs hatch 6-10 days after being laid, and the duration of the larval stage is about 35 days. Overwinters in pupa stage. Adults mate during the second evening after emergence and begin oviposition at dusk of the third evening.
Remarks
This is one big caterpillar. One reference states that the full-size larva is "about the size of a large hot dog"! Although the caterpillar looks fierce, it is harmless.
See Also
Splendid Royal Moth (Citheronia splendens) has white on the wings and occurs only in southern Arizona and Mexico
Print References
Covell, plate 1 #18 (caterpillar), plate 9 #2 (imago). (1)
Tuskes, pp. 60-62, plate 1--caterpillar, plate 7--imago (2)
Wagner, p. 19 (3)
Ferguson, D. C., 1971. Moths of America North of Mexico, Fascicle 20.2a: p. 32; pl. 3.4, 14
Internet References
Moth Photographers Group - species page with photographs of live and pinned adults plus complete life cycle.
ForestryImages Page - live adult, larva, and pupa images by various photographers (forestryimages.org)
North Carolina State University Fact Sheet illustrated overview by James Baker
Univ. of Florida Featured Creatures. - illustrated overview by Donald Hall and James Castner
Florida Nature account live larva images by Emily Earp and Josh Hillman (floridanature.org)
Moth Photographers Group - photographs of living Citheronia regalis adults and related species.
Butterflies and Moths of North America - photos of living and pinned adults plus overview, references, US distribution map.
Dalton State College - pinned adult photos by James Adams, and live larva images by Hanna Roland.
Caterpillars of Eastern Forests, USGS - live larva photos plus description, foodplants, seasonality (David Wagner and Valerie Giles)
Works Cited
1.Field Guide to Moths of Eastern North America
Charles V. Covell, Jr. 2005.
2.The Wild Silk Moths of North America: A Natural History of the Saturniidae of the United States and Canada
Paul M. Tuskes, James P. Tuttle, Michael M. Collins. 1996. Cornell University Press.
3.Caterpillars of Eastern Forests
David L. Wagner, Valerie Giles, Richard C. Reardon, Michael L. McManus. 1998. U.S. Dept of Agriculture, Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team.