Adults of P. vindex excavate a cavity and form a dung ball underneath a dung mass, as opposed to rolling it away, as do other scarabs. (See Univ. of Nebraska page.) Eggs are laid on this dung ball.
Edmonds, W.D. 1994. Revision of Phanaeus Macleay, a New World genus of Scarabaeine dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae). Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Contributions in Science 443: 1-105, 360 figs. (3)
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