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Subfamily Vespinae - Hornets and Yellowjackets

yellowjacket? - Vespula maculifrons - female Which Yellow Jacket? - Vespula alascensis European Hornet - Vespa crabro - female Vespula consobrina ? - Dolichovespula maculata Vespula flavopilosa nest. - Vespula flavopilosa yellowjacket  - Dolichovespula arenaria Bald Faced Hornet - Dolichovespula maculata Yellowjacket Wasp - Vespula alascensis - female
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Hymenoptera (Ants, Bees, Wasps and Sawflies)
No Taxon (Aculeata - Ants, Bees and Stinging Wasps)
Superfamily Vespoidea (Yellowjackets and Hornets, Paper Wasps; Potter, Mason and Pollen Wasps and allies)
Family Vespidae (Yellowjackets and Hornets, Paper Wasps; Potter, Mason and Pollen Wasps)
Subfamily Vespinae (Hornets and Yellowjackets)
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
our fauna revised in(1); summary of changes made since(2):
Two exotic spp. introduced: Vespa affinis Linnaeus and Vespa simillima (Smith)
One new species described: Dolichovespula alpicola Eck (AK-AB to AZ-NM along the Rocky Mts)
Several species previously considered Holarctic are not found in both North America and the Palearctic. Records of Vespula vulgaris, Vespula austriaca, Dolichovespula adulterina, and D. norwegica actually refer to Vespula alascensis (Packard), Vespula infernalis (de Saussure), D. albida (Sladen), and D. arctica (Rohwer), respectively; Vespula intermedia (du Buysson) should be used instead of Vespula rufa(1)
Numbers
22 spp. (of which 4 adventive or 2?) in 3 genera in our fauna(1)
Identification
Key to spp. in(1); an older but still helpful key in(2)
key to species with images in the Guide(4)
Range
worldwide
Food
Larvae eat mostly caterpillars. Adults take nectar.
Life Cycle
Social wasps. They build paper nests.
Works Cited
1.The Vespinae of North America (Vespidae, Hymenoptera)
L.S. Kimsey and J.M. Carpenter. 2012. Journal of Hymenoptera Research Vol. 28: 37–65.
2.Yellowjackets of America North of Mexico
Akre, R.D., A. Greene, J.F. MacDonald, P.J. Landolt, and H.G. Davis. 1980. U.S. Department of Agriculture.
3.Identification Atlas of the Vespidae (Hymenoptera, Aculeata) of the Northeastern Nearctic Region
Matthias Buck, Stephen A. Marshall, and David K. B. Cheung. 2008. Biological Survey of Canada [Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification].
4.YELLOWJACKETS & HORNETS THROUGH A LENS