Genus Stenopelmatus - Jerusalem Cricket
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Orthoptera (Grasshoppers, Crickets, Katydids)
Suborder Ensifera (Long-horned Orthoptera)
Infraorder Tettigoniidea (Katydids, Camel Crickets, and relatives)
Family Stenopelmatidae (Jerusalem Crickets)
Genus Stenopelmatus (Jerusalem Cricket)
Other Common Names
Woh-tzi-Neh (Navajo, variously translated as "old bald-headed man", "skull insect", or "bone-neck beetle"), Nina de la Tierra (Spanish, "child of the earth"), Potato Bug, Devil's Baby.
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
First described in 1838 by Hermann Burmeister
Explanation of Names
Stenopalmatus is probably from Greek stenos (στενος)- "narrow, straight" + pelma (πελμα)- "sole (of the foot)"
lists 8 species of Stenopelmatus
states the genus needs revision, with 14 species currently described in the family, but more than 60 North American species likely--most presumably in this genus.
Wingless. Antennae long. Front of pronotum is wide, antennae widely separated at base, head is very large. Tibiae are robust with spines for digging, and tarsi have pads beneath. Hind femora do not extend beyond tip of abdomen in this family (1)
this description applies to the whole family, but this is the most widespread genus in our area.)
The other North American genus in this family, Ammopelmatus, has, apparently, only two rare and local representatives.
Western United States, basically west of 100 west longitude--just reaching western Dakotas, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas. Dark Jerusalem Cricket, S. fuscus
is widespread, likely represents a species group (1)
Varied, under rocks, logs, but usually not sand dunes.
Predatory on other insects, also feeds on roots, decaying vegetation. Sometimes found eating potatoes.
Live in burrows and under rocks, logs, may wander on surface at night. Adults, and sometimes nymphs, strike ground with abdomen to produce species-specific drumming patterns (1)
. Female makes depression in soil for masses of oval, white eggs. Female often devours mate. One generation per year. Life history based on Milne's (2)
description of that for Stenopelmatus fuscus
Said to be able to deliver a strong bite, but also to make a good pet.
--species rare and local.
Capinera, pp. 216-217, plate 48 (1)
Milne, pp. 437-438, plate 247--S. fuscus (2)
Arnett and Jacques, #27--S. fuscus (3)
Powell and Hogue, pp. 70, 72, give several common names, plate 2e--S. fuscus (4)
Helfer, pp. 305-306, figs. 483, 484 (5)
Werner and Olson, pp. 43-44 (7)
SINA family page
--photo of a Stenopelmatus
Handbuch der Entomologie, v. 2, pt. 2, no. 1, p.720
Burmeister's original description of the genus (in German)