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Species Musca domestica - House Fly

House Fly - Musca domestica - female pesky fly on lakeshore - Musca domestica musca domestica? - Musca domestica Musca domestica - male Fly - Musca domestica - female House flies - Musca domestica - male - female House Fly? Male? - Musca domestica - male Fly ID - Musca domestica
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Diptera (Flies)
No Taxon (Calyptratae)
Superfamily Muscoidea
Family Muscidae (House Flies and kin)
Subfamily Muscinae
Tribe Muscini
Genus Musca
Species domestica (House Fly)
Explanation of Names
Musca domestica Linnaeus 1758
Latin domestica 'pertaining to the house'
Size
adult body 6-7 mm; females usually larger than males; larva 3-12 mm; pupa to 8 mm
Identification
adapted from[Cite:185010]:
Adult: eyes reddish; mouthparts sponging; dorsum of thorax with four narrow black stripes; sharp upward bend in fourth longitudinal wing vein (M1+2) which almost touches vein R4+5 at the wing margin [the shape of cell R5 resembles the blade of a scimitar]; abdomen gray or yellowish with dark midline and irregular dark markings on sides; underside of male yellowish; female eyes far apart, separated by broad ovoid frontal stripe that occupies more than half the distance between the eyes; male eyes close together, separated by narrow frontal stripe (distance between eyes in female almost 2x distance between eyes in male)
Larva: body whitish, cylindrical, tapering toward head; head with pair of dark hooks; posterior spiracles slightly raised, and spiracular openings are sinuous slits completely surrounded by oval black border
Pupa: color varies from yellow, red, brown, to black as pupa ages

Range
cosmopolitan, of Eurasian origin
Habitat
around homes, poultry & dairy farms, stables, garbage dumps, and other sources of rotting plant or animal matter; adults are inactive at night, often resting on ceilings in buildings, or on vegetation outdoors
Season
spring through fall
Food
adults feed on fresh and fermenting/rotting food, and garbage; adult mouthparts allow ingestion of liquid food only; solid materials are liquified by means of regurgitated saliva
larvae feed on moist material rich in organic matter where eggs were laid: manure, rotting plant or animal tissue, garbage
Life Cycle
Overwinters as larva or pupa under manure piles or in other protected locations. During summer, the life cycle can be completed in 7-10 days, and up to 12 generations may occur in one summer. Eggs are laid singly but pile up in small masses. Each female fly can lay up to 500 eggs in several batches of 75-150 eggs, each over a 3-4 day period. The larvae emerge within 8-20 hours and develop through 3 instars. Full-grown larvae crawl up to 15 m to a dried cool place and pupate. Adults usually live 15-25 days.[Cite:185010]
Remarks
>100 pathogens associated with the house fly may cause disease in humans and animals; pathogens are picked up by flies from garbage, sewage and other sources of filth, and transferred to human and animal food on fly mouthparts, other contaminated body parts, or through their vomitus/feces[Cite:185010]
See Also
Muscina stabulans (False Stable Fly) has a yellow-tipped scutellum, and its M1+2 vein is gently curved (not sharply bent) and doesn't come close to touching vein R4+5 at the wing margin (see images and info for Muscina stabulans)
Stomoxys calcitrans (Stable Fly) has a different pattern on thorax and abdomen, biting mouthparts, and its M1+2 vein is not sharply bent (see dorsal view and ventral view of both species)
Some Calliphoridae (Blow Flies) and Sarcophagidae (Flesh Flies) have wings with a "scimitar-shaped" cell R5, but lack 4 stripes on the thorax and/or an ovoid frontal stripe that occupies more than half the distance between the eyes
Print References
Fact sheet[Cite:185010]
Internet References
Fact sheet[Cite:185010]