Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Libytheana carinenta (Cramer, 1777)
Syn: Libytheana bachmanii (Kirtland, 1851)
Snouts are frequently placed in their own family, Libytheidae, as the larvae lack the spines and horns of most Nymphalidae and the pupae lack the dorsal bumps of most Nymphalinae.
Explanation of Names
"Snout" name due to extended labial palps.
About eight species occur throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world.
Beak-like labial palps. Topside forewing has white spots and orange patches on dark background. Underside violet-gray. (1)
Resident in southern U.S. and Mexico. Periodic to northern U.S. and extreme southern Ontario.
Gilbert's (1985) review of published accounts of snout migrations in south Texas between 1912 and 1980 found that they occur from late June to mid-October.
Hackberries (Celtis) and sugarberry. (1)
Spiny Hackberry (Celtis pallida)
Only snout butterfly that occurs regularly north of Mexico. (2)
Raymond Neck (1983) was the first to note that snout population size is positively correlated with the intensity and duration of dry periods immediately preceding drought-terminating rains. Larry Gilbert (1985) conducted the most intensive study yet of snout population explosions in south Texas.
Opler, P.A., Malikul, V., & R.T. Peterson, 1992. A Field Guide to Eastern Butterflies
. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 230, plate 18. (1)
Mitchell, R.T., Zim, H.S., & A. Durenceau, 2001. Butterflies and Moths
. St. Martin's Press, p. 62. (2)
Gilbert, L.E., 1985. Ecological factors which influence migratory behavior in two butterflies of the semi-arid shrublands of South Texas. pp. 724-747 in: Rankin, M.A. editors. Migration: Mechanisms and Adaptive Significance. University of Texas, Port Aransas.
Neck, R.W., 1983. Causal analysis of a migration of the snout butterfly. Libytheana bachmanii larvata (Strecker) (Libytheidae). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society
Neck, R.W., 1984. On the origin of snout butterflies (Libytheana bachmanii larvata, Libytheidae) in a 1978 migration in south Texas. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society