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Species Linyphia triangularis - European Sheetweb Spider

spider IMG_1129 - Linyphia triangularis Spider ZH3Z0951 - Linyphia triangularis Spider ZH3Z0951 - Linyphia triangularis Spider ZH3Z0936 - Linyphia triangularis - female Spider IMG_3204 - Linyphia triangularis - male Pachygnatha? - Linyphia triangularis Spider - Linyphia triangularis Sheetweb Spider - Linyphia triangularis
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Chelicerata (Chelicerates)
Class Arachnida (Arachnids)
Order Araneae (Spiders)
Infraorder Araneomorphae (True Spiders)
No Taxon (Entelegynes )
Family Linyphiidae (Sheetweb and Dwarf Spiders)
Subfamily Linyphiinae (Sheetweb Spiders)
Genus Linyphia
Species triangularis (European Sheetweb Spider)
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Author of the name: Clerck. Year first published: 1757 (as Araneus triangularis)
Explanation of Names
Latin for "triangular". The type specimen had three red patches on the abdomen, with the first triangular in shape. Genus name is Greek. Linyphia means linen maker.
Size
Adult female BL = 5-7mm
Adult male BL = 4-6mm
Identification
Helpful notes from Rod Crawford:
The patterning on the *sides* of the abdomen is different than Pityohyphantes species. Compare:

Linyphia triangularis vs. Pityohyphantes


The dorsal pattern does resemble Pityohyphantes but that genus usually has more regularity in the outline of the folium. Compare:

Linyphia triangularis vs. Pityohyphantes


Even a poor shot of the epigynum would tell the tale immediately, since the spoon-shaped scape in Pityohyphantes is so distinctive.
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Also, in Linyphia triangularis, the tuning-fork markings on the carapace do not extend all the way to the posterior eye row. In Pityohyphantes spp., they do.(1)
Range
Native to the Palearctic region, but recently introduced to Maine (by 2002, it was already successfully established and widely distributed there).(1)
Life Cycle
Adult male has enlarged chelicerae (jaws) that he uses in aggressive interactions with other males when competing for a female.
See Also


Adult male Frontinella communis has similar coloration as the male Linyphia triangularis:


Female Estrandia grandaeva has similar abdominal pattern (see diagram here (2), p. 124), but is half the size of L. triangularis.

Adult male Microlinyphia dana has similar abdominal pattern, body shape, & color as the male L. triangularis (pedipalps are very different, though):
Print References
Funke, S. & B. A. Huber, 2005. Allometry of genitalia and fighting structures in Linyphia triangularis (Araneae, Linyphiidae). Journal of Arachnology 33:870-872.

Lang, G.H.P. 2001. Sexual size dimorphism and juvenile growth rate in Linyphia triangularis (Araneae, Linyphiidae). Journal of Arachnology 29:64–71.

Nielsen, N. & S. Toft, 1990. Alternative male mating strategies in Linyphia triangularis (Araneae,Linyphiidae). Acta Zoologica Fennica 190:293–297.

Rovner, J.S. 1968. Territoriality in the sheet-web spider Linyphia triangularis (Clerck) (Araneae, Linyphiidae). Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie 25:232–242.

Stumpf, H. & K.E. Linsenmair, 1996. Observations on the mating systems of two spiders, Linyphia hortensis Sund. and L. triangularis (Cl.) (Linyphiidae: Araneae). Revue Suisse de Zoologie, vol. hors serie (August 1996):627–634.

Toft, S. 1989. Mate guarding in two Linyphia species (Araneae: Linyphiidae). Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 8:33–37.

Turnbull, A.L. 1960. The prey of the spider Linyphia triangularis (Clerck) (Araneae, Linyphiidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology 38:859–873.
Internet References
www.eurospiders.com - Images and information.
Spinnen Wiki - Images.
Svenska Spindlar, p.71    Clerck's original description of the species (in Swedish and Latin) and illustration: Pl. 3, Tab.2
Works Cited
1.Linyphia triangularis, a Palearctic spider (Araneae, Linyphiidae) new to North America
Daniel T. Jennings, Kefyn M. Catley, & Frank Graham, Jr. 2002. Journal of Arachnology 30(3):455–460.
2.How to Know the Spiders
B. J. Kaston. 1978. WCB/McGraw-Hill.