Genus Triatoma - Bloodsucking Conenoses
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Hemiptera (True Bugs, Cicadas, Hoppers, Aphids and Allies)
Suborder Heteroptera (True Bugs)
Family Reduviidae (Assassin Bugs)
Subfamily Triatominae (Kissing Bugs)
Genus Triatoma (Bloodsucking Conenoses)
Other Common Names
Kissing Bugs, Big Bed Bugs, Mexican Bed Bugs, Bellows Bugs, Vinchuca
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Conorhinus Laporte, 1833
Meccus Stal, 1859
Eutriatoma Pinto, 1926
Neotriatoma Pinto, 1931
Mepraia Mazza, Tobar & Jorg, 1940
Nesotriatoma Usinger, 1944
Explanation of Names
Triatoma Laporte 1832
'three-segmented'. "In his supplement to Essai d’un classification systematique de l’ordre des Hemipt&egrav;res, ... Laporte speaks of his mistake in describing the genus as having only three segments to the antennae, and giving it the name 'Triatoma' descriptive of this condition, and substitutes the name Conorhinus for Triatoma. This substitution, however, has not been accepted." (Readio 1927) This shows how the common name “conenose bugs” was derived.
Medium-sized, pear-shaped, boldly patterned in dark brown to black with reddish markings; beak tapered, not curved(2)
Key to species provided in Lent & Wygodzinsky (1979)(3)
Pantropical. In the New World, so. US (transcontinental) to Argentina. In the US, T. sanguisuga and T. lecticularia east of the Mississippi River, T. rubrofasciata an isolated introduction in FL, others southwestern (CA-TX).
Generally nidicolous, occurring most often in rodent nests but also in bird nests, logs and man-made structures such as barns, coops, houses; some Neotropical spp. also in caves
All year, but more frequently noticed in spring and fall when dispersing and coming to lights
Hematophagous, feeding on blood from tetrapods. Most common hosts are mammalian but avian, reptilian and amphibian hosts are recorded. The most common wild hosts are wood rats (Neotoma) but other common ones include armadillos, opossums and raccoons (possibly also skunks); synanthropic species may feed on livestock (horses, cattle, chickens), pets and humans.
After a meal, female scatters many oval whitish eggs; nymphs pass through eight instars and take up to 2-3 years to complete the cycle
Bite can cause severe allergic reaction in humans. Bite and defecation into bite can transmit Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi
, a protozoan, whose most notorious vector is the South American T. infestans
. The North American species do not normally defecate at the site of the bite, and thus do not normally transmit the disease, though they can carry the parasite (Vetter 2001
). Rare vector-borne cases of Chagas disease have been noted in the so. US (CDC 2013
Galvão C., Carcavallo R., da Silva Rorcha D., Jurberg J. (2004) A checklist of the current valid species of the subfamily Triatominae Jeannel, 1919 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) and their geographical distribution, with nomenclatural and taxonomic notes. Zootaxa 202: 1-36. Quick View
Readio P.A. (1927) Studies on the biology of the Reduviidae of America north of Mexico. University of Kansas Science Bulletin 17: 5-291.
|2.||How to Know the True Bugs|
Slater, James A., and Baranowski, Richard M. 1978. Wm. C. Brown Company.