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Family Mantispidae - Mantidflies

Very small mantid - Dicromantispa sayi Mantispid - Leptomantispa pulchella BG2324 E5758 - Climaciella brunnea - male Mantispid! - Dicromantispa sayi Mantidfly in Ontario??? What kind? Common? - Dicromantispa sayi Fly? - Dicromantispa sayi Mantispidae, Those Eyes - Climaciella brunnea Leptomantispa pulchella
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Neuroptera (Antlions, Lacewings and Allies)
Suborder Hemerobiiformia
Family Mantispidae (Mantidflies)
Other Common Names
Mantisflies, Mantid Lacewings
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
nearctic members of Mantispinae used to be treated in Mantispa (restricted to the Old World, as currently defined)(1)
Numbers
13 spp. in 6 genera in our area; 4 spp. in 3 genera in Canada(2)(3)(4)(5)(6), ~400 spp. in 44 genera worldwide(5)
Current taxonomic arrangement:
Subfamily Symphrasinae
Plega Navás (4 spp., sw. US; 14 total)
Subfamily Calomantispinae
Nolima Navás (3 spp., TX, AZ; 7 total)
Subfamily Mantispinae(1)
Climaciella brunnea (widespread; 8 spp. total in the genus)
Dicromantispa Hoffman (2 spp., widespread, mostly East; 5 total)
Leptomantispa pulchella (widespread; 3 spp. total in the genus)
Xeromantispa scabrosa (West; monotypic genus)
Zeugomantispa minuta (East; 3 spp. total in the genus)
Size
20-35 mm
Identification
Like lacewings, but with raptorial, mantid-like forelegs; one species is a wasp mimic.
Keys to subfamilies and genera in(7)
Family characteristics(7):
prothorax elongated, resembling a giraffe's neck
large "raptorial" front legs, modified for catching prey--with claw and spines,
front legs originate from anterior part of thorax (at front of elongated prothorax), so that only four legs are usually used for walking--front legs are held up, used for catching prey
head triangular with large eyes, mantid-like
Range
Worldwide (mostly tropical) & across NA, more diverse in the south
Food
Predatory: Adults eat small insects, caught with their raptorial forelegs. Larvae in the subfamily Mantispinae are restricted to feeding on eggs within egg sacs of spiders. Larvae in the other more primitive subfamilies (i.e. our genera Plega and Nolima) have been reared on immatures of Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, and Diptera, spider eggs and paralyzed spiders removed from sphecid cells.
Life Cycle
Stalked eggs typically laid in large numbers.

Larvae undergo hypermetamorphosis. In subfamily Mantispinae, 1st instar larvae either seek out and penetrate spider egg sac directly, or board spiders and wait for the opportunity to enter egg sacs as they are spun. In the other subfamilies, larvae are more generalist predators of other insects, especially terrestrial larvae of scarab beetles, noctuid moths, and certain wasps.
   
Print References
Redborg K.E. 1998. Biology of the Mantispidae. Annual Review of Entomology 43: 175-194. (Abstract)
Works Cited
1.Systematics of the Mantispinae (Neuroptera: Mantispidae) of North, Central and South America
Kevin M. Hoffman. 1992. University Microfilms International.
2.Species catalog of the Neuroptera, Megaloptera, and Raphidioptera of America North of Mexico
Penny N.D., Adams P.A., Stange L.A. 1997. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 50: 39-114.
3.The Mantispidae (Insecta: Neuroptera) of Canada, with notes on morphology, ecology, and distribution
Cannings R.A., Cannings S.G. 2006. Can. Entomologist 138: 531-544.
4.Mantispidae (Neuroptera) of Mexico: Distribution and key to genera
Reynoso-Velasco D., Contreras-Ramos A. 2008. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 101(4): 703-712.
5.Neuropterida Species of the World catalogue (by J.D. Oswald)
6.Family Mantispidae. In: Penny N.D., ed. A guide to the lacewings (Neuroptera) of Costa Rica
Kevin M. Hoffman. 2002. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 53(12): 251-275.
7.American Insects: A Handbook of the Insects of America North of Mexico
Ross H. Arnett. 2000. CRC Press.