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Genus Nicrophorus - Sexton Beetles

Burying beetle with mites - Nicrophorus sayi Nicrophorus vespilloides Nicrophorus_obscurus_ZE.13327_dorsal - Nicrophorus obscurus Carion Beetle - Nicrophorus carolinus Nicrophorus nigrita WHAT BUG please? - Nicrophorus tomentosus is this a Sexton Beetle? - Nicrophorus tomentosus Roundneck Sexton Beetle - Nicrophorus orbicollis
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Coleoptera (Beetles)
Suborder Polyphaga (Water, Rove, Scarab, Long-horned, Leaf and Snout Beetles)
No Taxon (Series Staphyliniformia)
Superfamily Staphylinoidea (Rove, Carrion and Fungus Beetles)
Family Silphidae (Carrion Beetles)
Genus Nicrophorus (Sexton Beetles)
Other Common Names
Burying Beetles
Explanation of Names
Nicrophorus Fabricius 1775
Greek 'carrier of the dead'
Common name refers to the carrion-burying habits (sexton's duties included digging graves)
Numbers
15 spp. in our area(1), ~70 total; local faunas: 14 spp. in Canada & Alaska(2), 11 in NE(3), 7 in NC(4), 6 in FL(5), 5 in CA(6)
Size
16-35 mm
Identification
Large, dark beetles, usually with orange/red patterns on the elytra
For identification see(2)(3)(7)(8)
Range
Eurasia (most diverse in e. Asia) and the New World; throughout NA(3)
Habitat
Variety of habitats where carrion is present; some attracted to rotting fruit
Food
Small vertebrate carrion (e.g. mice).
Life Cycle
Remarkable parental care: adults bury a small carcass, lay eggs in it, and stay to feed the young on regurgitated carrion.
Remarks
Sexton beetles' ability to locate carrion at large distances and their ability to fly make them highly attractive symbionts for the mites.
"Phoretic mites are invariably present on Nicrophorus adults and may be involved in a symbiotic relationship with the beetles. These mites feed on any fly eggs that may be in the surrounding soil or on the carcass and which would otherwise hatch into maggots, competing (with Nicrophorus larvae) for the carrion (Springett 1968). In turn, the mites receive transportation to and from food sources that would otherwise be inaccessible to them, because carcasses are randomly distributed in place and time, and are a highly unpredictable resource. Four families of mites occur on the beetles: Parasitidae, Anoetidae, Uropodidae, and Macrochelidae. Poecilochirus mites (Parasitidae) form the largest and most active group of mites on the adult beetles...."(8)
Print References
Schwarz H.H., Mùˆller J.K. (1992) The dispersal behaviour of the phoretic mite Poecilochirus carabi (Mesostigmata, Parasitidae): Adaptation to the breeding biology of its carrier Necrophorus vespilloides (Coleoptera, Silphidae). Oecologia 89: 487-493.
Springett B.P. (1968) Aspects of the relationship between burying beetles, Necrophorus spp. and the mite Poecilochirus necrophori. J. Anim. Ecol. 37: 417-424.
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