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Order Trichoptera - Caddisflies

Caddisfly - Banksiola Longhorned Caddisflies  - Triaenodes Salt and Pepper Microcaddis - Agraylea multipunctata Ventral Glossosoma nigrior Lepidostoma sp. #2, early instars - voucher specimens, in alcohol - Lepidostoma Hydroptilidae Caddisfly
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Trichoptera (Caddisflies)
Other Common Names
Casemakers (larvae)
Explanation of Names
Trichoptera = Greek 'hairy wing'
Caddis means cotton or silk; tape or ribbon of worsted yarn; caddice men (vendors of ribbons, braids, etc.) pinned their wares on their coats(1)
Numbers
>1,350 spp. in ~150 genera of 22 families in NA; ca. 13,600 spp. in >600 genera of 47 families worldwide(2)
Overview of our fauna (* –taxa not yet in the guide; classification adapted from (2)):
Order TrichopteraSUBORDER ANNULIPALPIA
SUPERFAMILY HYDROPSYCHOIDEA
Subfamily Macronematinae
Subfamily Tinodinae Lype, *Tinodes
SUPERFAMILY PHILOPOTAMOIDEA
SUBORDER INTEGRIPALPIA
SUPERFAMILY LEPTOCEROIDEA
Family Leptoceridae
Subfamily Leptocerinae
SUPERFAMILY LIMNEPHILOIDEA
Family Apataniidae
Unplaced to subfamily: *Allomyia, *Manophylax, *Moselyana, *Pedomoecus
Family Goeridae
Subfamily Limnephilinae
Unplaced to subfamily: *Sphagnophylax
Family Uenoidae
SUPERFAMILY PHRYGANEOIDEA
Family Phryganeidae
SUPERFAMILY SERICOSTOMATOIDEA
"SPICIPALPIA"
SUPERFAMILY HYDROPTILOIDEA
Subfamily Agapetinae Agapetus
Subfamily Glossosomatinae
Placement uncertain Dibusa
SUPERFAMILY RHYACOPHILOIDEA
Size
1.5-40 mm
Identification
Adults resemble moths, but wings are hairy instead of scaly.
Forewings usually dark, sturdy, sometimes with striking color patterns, held tightly together roof-like over the abdomen when at rest.
Hindwings often clear, relatively delicate, and hidden under forewings when at rest.
Antennae usually very long, threadlike, with many segments.
Chewing mouthparts with prominent palpi.
Tarsi have five segments.
Ocelli (simple eyes) present in some families.
Keys to NA families & genera in(3); keys covering local faunas in(4)(5)(6)...
The aquatic larvae have three pairs of legs and a soft, elongate, segmented abdomen usually hidden inside a case; head well-developed with chewing mouthparts in most species.
Most species live in a mobile case constructed from plant material, algae, grains of sand, pieces of snail shells, or entirely of silk. The case is held together with strands of silk secreted by the larva. In some species the case is attached to a rock, log, or other underwater surface; a few species have no case and are free-living.
The case's particular shape and construction material is distinctive of the family and/or genus, and can be used in identification. Example: Helicopyschidae larvae use sand grains to build spiral cases that resemble small snail shells.
Range
worldwide and throughout NA
Habitat
Species most diverse in well-aerated streams, but also occur in lakes, ponds, and marshes. Adults rest on nearby vegetation during the day; flight activity begins at dusk. Adults are attracted - sometimes in great numbers - to artificial light.
Season
adults fly Apr-Nov
Food
Some adults take liquid food, such as nectar, others do not feed. Larvae usually detritivorous, some are predatory.
Life Cycle
Metamorphosis holometabolous. Usually one generation per year, sometimes several; some species take more than a year to develop. Depending on species, adults may be long-lived (30 days or more) or short-lived.
Remarks
Larvae are an important food item of fish, and are used as bait by anglers.
Most caddisfly larvae are intolerant of pollution; therefore, their presence is an indication of good water quality, and their absence in areas where they previously occurred may be an indication of polluted water.
The fungus Erynia rhizospora infects adult caddisflies and causes them to die stuck to the undersides of rocks and logs in streams -- examples in(7).
See Also
moths have scaly wings and a coiled proboscis
Print References
(8)(9)
Internet References
Net-spinning Caddisflies, by D.C. Fowler
Works Cited
1.How to Know the Insects
Roger G. Bland, H.E. Jaques. 1978. WCB/McGraw-Hill.
2.Morse J.C., coordinator (-2014) Trichoptera world checklist
3.Aquatic Insects of North America
R. W. Merritt, K. W. Cummins, M.B. Berg. 2008. Kendall/Hunt.
4.Bright E. (2002-2011) Aquatic Insects of Michigan
5.Digital key to aquatic insects of North Dakota
6.Parker D. (-2012) AquaTax Consulting
7.DRAFT: Arthropod Pathogenic Fungi
8.The Trichoptera of North Carolina... Version TBA
TBA (S.R. Beaty?). 2011. North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources. 46 pp.
9.Caddisflies (Trichoptera) of the Yukon, with analysis of the Beringian and Holarctic species of North America
Wiggins G.B., Parker C.R. 1997. In: Danks H.V., Downes J.A. (Eds.), Insects of the Yukon. Biological Survey of Canada (Terrestrial Arthropods), Ottawa: 787–86.