Identification, Images, & Information
For Insects, Spiders & Their Kin
For the United States & Canada
Clickable Guide
Moths Butterflies Flies Caterpillars Flies Dragonflies Flies Mantids Cockroaches Bees and Wasps Walkingsticks Earwigs Ants Termites Hoppers and Kin Hoppers and Kin Beetles True Bugs Fleas Grasshoppers and Kin Ticks Spiders Scorpions Centipedes Millipedes

Calendar
Upcoming Events

Photos of insects and people from the 2015 gathering in Wisconsin, July 10-12

Photos of insects and people from the 2014 gathering in Virginia, June 4-7.

Photos of insects and people from the 2013 gathering in Arizona, July 25-28

Photos of insects and people from the 2012 gathering in Alabama

Photos of insects and people from the 2011 gathering in Iowa

Photos from the 2010 Workshop in Grinnell, Iowa

Photos from the 2009 gathering in Washington

TaxonomyBrowse
Info
ImagesLinksBooksData

Species Danaus eresimus - Soldier - Hodges#4616

Soldier - Danaus eresimus Soldier or Queen? - Danaus eresimus - male Soldier Danaus eresimus  - Danaus eresimus - male Danaus eresimus - male Danaus eresimus - male Soldier - Danaus eresimus Danaus eresimus (Cramer) - Danaus eresimus - male - female Danaus eresimus (Cramer) - Danaus eresimus - male
Show images of: caterpillars · adults · both
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Lepidoptera (Butterflies and Moths)
Superfamily Papilionoidea (Butterflies and Skippers)
Family Nymphalidae (Brush-footed Butterflies)
Subfamily Danainae (Milkweed Butterflies & Glasswings)
Tribe Danaini (Milkweed Butterflies)
Genus Danaus
Species eresimus (Soldier - Hodges#4616)
Hodges Number
4616
Other Common Names
Tropical Queen (1)
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Danaus eresimus (Cramer)
Pap[ilio]. Dan[aus] Festiv[us]. Eresimus Cramer, [1777] (2) usually cited as: Papilio eresimus Cramer 1777
Explanation of Names
eresis - Greek for 'take' (3)
Numbers
Three Danaus species north of Mexico. (2)
Size
wingspan ~8 cm
Identification
Dorsal, very similar to the Queen, with slightly darker veins. Male has a black dot on each HW.
Ventral, black veins on both FW and HW, Queen only has black veins on HW. Soldiers are the only one in the genus that has pale squarish spots forming a concentric postmedian band.
Range
Heppner (2003) listed the range to include Arizona; Texas; Florida; West Indies; Mexico to Brazil. (4)
Map (5)
a few strays are reported north of their southern range each fall.
Habitat
Found in many different open areas with their host plant, nectar sources, or pyrrolizidine alkaloids.
Season
North to Orland in the summer, all year in south Florida with 3+ broods, most common October-December.
Food
Milkweeds A. curassavica, A. tomentosa, twinevines - Funastrum (=Sarcostemma) clausumi, Funastrum (=Sarcostemma) cynanchoides, Cynanchum racemosum and latexplant - Morrenia odorata (Asclepiadaceae)
"I've never had Soldiers oviposit on Tropical Milkweed, although larvae readily eat it. They typically oviposit on Cynanchum or Sarcostemma. (Dale Clark, pers. comm. to MAQ, 2013)
Remarks
Tropical species that began colonizing Florida in the 1970's. The Florida Soldiers come from an Antillean population, and the Texas Soldiers originated in Mexico.
In the summer, Soldiers sometimes stray north to NC.
See Also
Relatives: Queen, Monarch. See also the unrelated Viceroy
Print References
(6) (7) (8) (9)
Calhoun, J.V. 1996. Conquering soldiers: the successful invasion of Florida by Danaus eresimus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Holarctic Lepidoptera 3: 7-18.
Cramer, [1777]. Uitlandsche Kapellen (Papillons exotiques) Uitl. Kapellen 2 (9-16): 1-152.
Internet References
Soldier larvae - Dale Clark, Dallas County Lepidopterists' Society (DCLS)
Works Cited
1.National Audubon Society Field Guide to Butterflies
Robert Michael Pyle. 1981. Knopf.
2.A Catalogue of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada--by Jonathan P. Pelham
3.Dictionary of Word Roots and Combining Forms
Donald J. Borror. 1960. Mayfield Publishing Company.
4.Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas: Lepidoptera of Florida
J.B. Heppner. 2003. Florida Department of Agriculture 17(1): 1-670.
5.North American Moth Photographers Group
6.Caterpillars in the Field and Garden: A Field Guide to the Butterfly Caterpillars of North America
Thomas J. Allen, James P. Brock, Jeffrey Glassberg. 2005. Oxford University Press.
7.Butterflies of the East Coast : An Observer's Guide
Rick Cech, Guy Tudor. 2005. Princeton University Press.
8.Butterflies of North America (Kaufman Focus Guides)
Jim P. Brock, Kenn Kaufman. 2003. Houghton Mifflin Co.
9.Butterflies through Binoculars: Florida
Jeffrey Glassberg, Marc C. Minno, John V. Calhoun. 2000. Oxford Press.