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Species Aedes albopictus - Asian Tiger Mosquito

Asian Tiger Mosquito? - Aedes albopictus - female Asian Tiger Mosquito  - Aedes albopictus - female Asian Tiger Mosquito - Ohio - Aedes albopictus Biting Asian Tiger Mosquito - Aedes albopictus - female Biting Asian Tiger Mosquito - Aedes albopictus - female Asian tiger mosquito - Aedes albopictus - female Asian Tiger Mosquito - Aedes albopictus - female Is this A. albopictus? - Aedes albopictus - female
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Diptera (Flies)
No Taxon ("Nematocera" (Non-Brachycera))
Infraorder Culicomorpha (Mosquitoes and Midges)
Family Culicidae (Mosquitoes)
Tribe Aedini
Genus Aedes
Species albopictus (Asian Tiger Mosquito)
Other Common Names
ATM; forest day mosquito
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Aedes albopictus (Skuse)
Orig. Comb: Culex albopictus Skuse, 1894
Syn: Stegomyia albopicta (Skuse) - new classification proposed by Reinert et al in 2004, but not universally accepted.
Explanation of Names
The Asian Tiger Mosquito is so named because of its conspicuous stripes, ferocious feeding behavior and its Asian origin. (1)
Identification

recognized by bold black shiny scales and distinct silver white scales on the palpus and tarsi. The scutum is black with a distinctive white stripe down the center beginning at the dorsal surface of the head and continuing along the thorax.
Range
e US (TX-FL-NH-NE) / Mex. (3)
First breeding population was recorded in Houston in 1985, where surprisingly, Ae. albopictus was found to be both the most abundant and frequently collected species. (4) This overwhelming abundance in Harris Co., TX and a single female collected earlier in a cemetery in Memphis, Tenn. in 1983 (5) suggests that the Asian tiger mosquito was already rapidly spreading across the e US. And in fact, surveys in 1986 found breeding populations established in 11 states. (6) By 1987, 15 states were infested and by 1997, the ATM was recorded in 25 states (7)
Habitat
most commonly in medium volumes of water in buckets, tires and plant saucers but rarely collected in small volumes of water found in trash items such as discarded cups and cans. They were also absent from large volumes of water such as in abandoned swimming pools and catch basins (8)
Season
mostly: May-Sept (BG data)
Food
Adult females feed on the blood of birds, humans, and domestic & wild mammals.
The larvae feed on fine particulate organic matter in the water.
Life Cycle
The ATM differs from most other mosquitoes in that it's diurnal (active during the day).
Eggs are laid singly above the water surface on the sides of water-holding containers such as tires, animal watering dishes, birdbaths, flowerpots and natural holes in vegetation. Multiple generations per year; overwinters in the egg stage in temperate climates.
The indiscriminate feeding of female ATMs may make them poor vectors for dengue, Chikungunya and Zika but perhaps fine vectors for WNv. (1)
Remarks
The Asian tiger mosquito is an invasive and aggressive species that was introduced to the United States during the mid-1980s. (4)(5)(6)(9)
Major declines in the abundance of Ae. aegypti have been associated with the expansion of Ae. albopictus in both urban and rural areas (6)(10)(11)
Medical importance
Aedes albopictus is most well known for transmitting dengue and chikungunya viruses but it has also been found infected in nature with the following viruses: West Nile, Eastern equine encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis. It can also transmit dog heartworm parasites. (CDC) Ae. albopictus is a competent laboratory vector of at least 22 arboviruses. (7)(12) Ae. albopictus may have played a major role in ZIKV transmission in Gabon in 2007. (13) Armstrong et al. (2013) tested > 34,000 Ae. albopictus from New Jersey over a 3-yr period to evaluate its importance as a regional arbovirus vector. Despite an intensive sampling effort during a period of WNV amplification, no WNv was detected, but see discussion. (14)
Print References
Gerhardt et al. 2001. First isolation of La Crosse Virus from naturally infected Aedes albopictus. Emerging Infectious Diseases 7: 807-811.
Hawley, W.A. 1988. The biology of Aedes albopictus. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. Supplement #1. p. 1-40.
Lambert et al. 2010. La Crosse virus in Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, Texas, USA, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases 16(5): 856-858. (15)
Mitchell et al. 1992. Isolation of eastern equine encephalitis virus from Aedes albopictus in Florida. Science 257: 526-527.
Reinert et al. 2004. Phylogeny and classification of Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae), based on morphological characters of all life stages. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 142: 289–368.
Internet References
Featured Creatures - Leslie Rios, and James E. Maruniak, University of Florida, 2014
CDC (PDF)
EDIS - G. F. O'Meara, professor emeritus, Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory (EDIS is the Electronic Data Information Source of UF/IFAS)
Works Cited
1.Mosquito: A Natural History of Our Most Persistent and Deadly Foe
Andrew Spielman, Sc.D., Michael D'Antonio. 2001. Hyperion Press.
2.Identification guide to common mosquitoes of Florida, by M.M. Cutwa-Francis & G.F. O'Meara
3.Mosquitoes of the southeastern United States
Nathan D. Burkett-Cadena. 2013. The University of Alabama Press. xiii + 188 pp.
4.The discovery and distribution of Aedes albopictus in Harris County, Texas.
Sprenger D, Wuithiranyagool T. 1986. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 2: 217-219.
5.Aedes albopictus in Memphis, Tennessee, (USA): An achievement of modern transportation?
Reiter, P. and R.F. Darsie. 1984. Mosquito News 44(3): 396-399.
6.Aedes albopictus in the United States: rapid spread of a potential disease vector.
Moore CG, Francy DB, Eliason DA, Monath TP. 1988. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 4(3):356-61.
7.Aedes albopictus in the United States: ten-year presence and public health implications.
Moore, C.G. and C.J. Mitchell. 1997. Emerging Infectious Diseases 3: 329-334.
8.Crouching Tiger, Hidden Trouble: Urban Sources of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Refractory to Source-Reduction.
Unlu et al. 2013. PLoS ONE 8(10): e77999.
9.Updated Distribution of Aedes albopictus in Oklahoma, and Implications in Arbovirus Transmission.
Noden, B.H., L. Coburn, R. Wright and K. Bradley. 2015. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 31(1): 93-96.
10.Spread of Aedes albopictus and decline of Ae. aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Florida.
O'Meara GF, Evans LF Jr, Gettman AD, Cuda JP. 1995. Journal of Medical Entomology 32(4): 554-562.
11.Competition and resistance to starvation in larvae of container-inhabiting Aedes mosquitoes.
Barrera, R. 1996. Ecological Entomology. 21(2): 117-127.
12.Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse): a potential vector of Zika virus in Singapore.
Wong et al. 2013. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 7(8): e2348.
13.Zika Virus in Gabon (Central Africa) – 2007: A New Threat from Aedes albopictus?
Grard et al. 2014. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 8(2): e2681.
14.Isolations of Cache Valley virus from Aedes albopictus (Culicidae) in New Jersey and its role as a region arbovirus vector.
Armstrong et al. 2013. Journal of Medical Entomology. 50(6): 1310-1314. .
15.La Crosse virus in Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, Texas, USA, 2009.
Lambert et al. 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases 16(5): 856-858.