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Family Anthomyiidae - Root-Maggot Flies

Tiny Fly - Leucophora unknown fly - male Fly ID Request unknown fly Fly Root-Maggot Fly - Anthomyia oculifera - male  Root-Maggot Fly - Anthomyia - male Early Diptera at Chesapeake water's edge - female
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Diptera (Flies)
No Taxon (Calyptratae)
Superfamily Muscoidea
Family Anthomyiidae (Root-Maggot Flies)
Explanation of Names
Anthomyiidae Robineau-Desvoidy 1830
Numbers
~640 spp. in ~40 genera in our area (per Nearctica), close to 2,000 spp. in 53 genera total(1)
Identification
Small to medium-sized flies, usually yellow, brown, gray or blackish; well-developed calypter at base of each wing; resemble muscid flies but more slender; wings sometimes clouded with gray or brown; legs yellowish to black. (Virtual Exhibit on Canada's Biodiversity)
R5 cell parallel-sided, 2A reaches margin of wing, at least as a fold; hypopleura without bristles, often only one sternopleural bristle.
Range
throughout North America and the world
Habitat
adults often on flowers in moist or wooded habitats; also common in fields
Food
Most adults feed on nectar. A few (Egle) feed on pollen, and may be important pollinators. Some (Alliopsis, Zaphne) are predators. Larvae may feed on roots (Delia), leaves (Pegomya), or seeds (Delia, Egle); others live in bird nests (Anthomyia), dung (Calythea, Eutrichota, Hylemya), mushrooms (Anthomyia, Pegomya) or as endoparasitoids of grasshoppers (Acridomyia) or as kleptoparasites of Hymenoptera (Eustalomyia, Leucophora).
Life Cycle
1. eggs, 2. Larva (early instar), 3. Larva (later instar), 4. Puparia, 5. Adult
Remarks
Except for a few species with distinctive color patterns, identification to genus normally requires a dorsal and close lateral shot clearly showing bristle pattern (legs and thorax), calypters, and antenna. Even then, some genera can not be identified except by dissection.
Some are agricultural pests, especially some in the genus Delia, including the onion fly (D. antiqua), the wheat bulb fly (D. coarctata), the turnip root fly (D. floralis), the bean seed fly (D. platura) and the cabbage root fly (D. radicum).
Print References
(2)
Internet References
Works Cited
1.Order Diptera Linnaeus, 1758. In: Zhang Z.-Q. (ed.) Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification...
Pape T., Blagoderov V., Mostovski M.B. 2011. Zootaxa 3148: 222–229.
2.A Field Guide to Insects
Richard E. White, Donald J. Borror, Roger Tory Peterson. 1998. Houghton Mifflin Co.