Species Chilocorus cacti - Cactus Lady Beetle
Nutritional aspects of non-prey foods in the life histories of predaceous Coccinellidae.By Lundgren, J.G.
Biological Control 51(2): 294–305., 2009
Lundgren, J.G. 2009. Nutritional aspects of non-prey foods in the life histories of predaceous Coccinellidae. Biological Control 51(2): 294–305.
Non-prey foods are an integral component of the diets of most predaceous coccinellids. Under field conditions, numerous coccinellids consume nectar, honeydew, pollen, fruit, vegetation
, and fungus
. These non-prey foods are used by coccinellids to increase survival when prey is scarce, reduce mortality during diapause, fuel migration, and enhance reproductive capacity.
Ecology and behaviour of the ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae).By Hodek, I., H.F. van Emden & A. Honěk (eds).
Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Chichester, UK, xxxvii + 561 pp., 2012
Hodek, I., H.F. van Emden & A. Honěk (eds). 2012. Ecology and behaviour of the ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae). Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Chichester, UK, xxxvii + 561 pp.
from publisher's website
Ladybirds are probably the best known predators of aphids and coccids in the world, though this greatly underestimates the diversity of their biology. Maximising their impact on their prey is an important element in modern conservation biological control of indigenous natural enemies in contrast to the classical approach of releasing alien species.
Causes and consequences of ladybug washups in the Finger Lakes region of New York State (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).By Denemark, E. and J. Losey.
Entomologica Americana, 116: 78-88., 2010
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Denemark, E. and J. Losey. 2010. Causes and consequences of ladybug washups in the Finger Lakes region of New York State (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Entomologica Americana, 116: 78-88.
Abstract.—We searched for and collected data on a phenomenon known as ladybug washups, in which large numbers of coccinellids aggregate on the shores of major bodies of water. Our field season lasted from 5/23/2008 until 8/12/2008 in the Finger Lakes Region of New York, United States.
Aggregation of lady beetles on the shores of lakes (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).By Lee, R.E., Jr.
American Midland Naturalist, 104(2): 295-304., 1980
Lee, R.E., Jr. 1980. Aggregation of lady beetles on the shores of lakes (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). American Midland Naturalist, 104(2): 295-304.
ABSTRACT: Aggregations of lady beetles, predominately Hippodamia convergens
and H. tredecimpunctata
, were commonly observed on the shores of lakes in the Upper Midwest during the autumn and spring. The beetles remain on the shore for only a short time, usually dispersing within 2-3 weeks. Lady beetles from autumn shore aggregations and overwintering aggregations are characterized by the presence of large amounts of fat, reproductive inactivitiy, empty digestive tracts, a skew in the sex ratio favoring females and the behavioral tendency to form aggregations.
The Coccinellidae of Louisiana (Insecta: Coleoptera).By Chapin, J.B.
Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 682: 2-87., 1974
- I have inserted, as page 2, an undated taxonomic addendum compiled by Chapin.
Chapin, J.B. 1974. The Coccinellidae of Louisiana (Insecta: Coleoptera). Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 682: 2-87.
Dr. Joan Beggs Chapin (1929-2014)
A taxonomic study of the Coccinellidae of Louisiana was undertaken in 1965 to identify the species occurring in the state. Keys and descriptions are provided for the 6 subfamilies, 11 tribes, 27 genera, and 71 species recorded
as occurring in the state. Of the species listed, 38 are reported as new. Distribution records by parish and dates of seasonal occurrences are given.
Notes on Texas Coccinellidae.By Gaines, J.C.
Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 28(5): 211-215., 1933
Gaines, J.C. 1933. Notes on Texas Coccinellidae. Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 28(5): 211-215.
"The following is a list of Coccinellids collected principally by the writer in the vicinity of College Station and in Hidalgo county, Texas, during 1930, 1931, and 1932. Notes, as far as possible, are given on the habitat, host, and the date that each species was collected. Of the 64 species and varieties listed
herein, 19 have not been heretofore reported from this state. The writer is indebted to Dr. E. A. Chapin
for determining some of the species of Hyperaspis