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Species Nomada bethunei

Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Hymenoptera (Ants, Bees, Wasps and Sawflies)
No Taxon (Aculeata - Ants, Bees and Stinging Wasps)
No Taxon (Anthophila (Apoidea) - Bees)
Family Apidae (Cuckoo, Carpenter, Digger, Bumble, and Honey Bees)
Subfamily Nomadinae (Cuckoo Bees)
Tribe Nomadini (Nomad Bees)
Genus Nomada (Nomad Bees)
No Taxon (ruficornis species group, Typical Nomad Bees)
Species bethunei (Nomada bethunei)
Other Common Names
Cuckoo Bee
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Nomada pseudops (female)
Size
9 to 10 mm.
Identification
Same characteristics as the larger Nomada that have thorax segment 2 (scutellum) yellow, but scutellum is entirely red on both male and female of Nomada bethunei.

Female:
Head: Red with black area on top of head and around antenna bases. Lower face orange-yellowish, with thin covering of whitish hair; color may extend vaguely, up inner eye margin. Cheeks hairy, narrower than eye width, with dark hind border. Mandibles without teeth.
Antenna: Base (scape) reddish. Segments reddish, very thick, slightly lighter on underside. Segment 1 slightly shorter than all others.
Thorax: Red. Collar stripe yellow; short and narrowing or interrupted at center. Segment 1 (scutum) with a faint, narrow median black line. Segment 2 (scutellum) has indented mid-line with red knob on each side. Segment 3 (propodeum) has 2 yellow spots at base of segment and 2 longer, larger spots on lower segment. White fringe on side edges. Note: Spots more obvious and may be joined on western populations. Thorax sides have yellow tubercles and may have other very small, vague yellow spots or streaks below tubercle; all with thin covering of short white hair. A wide black area extends from under wing base to hind leg. Underside with some white hairs.
Wings: Wing knobs (tegulae) brownish-yellow. Wings moderately tinted, tips darker. Veins dark. Stigma reddish-brown.
Legs: Legs reddish-yellow. Mid and hind thighs (femora) have some black streaks, hind thigh also black on underside.
Abdomen: Red with bright yellow stripes and spots.
Segment 1 darker red to blackish. May have faint light reddish to light yellow marks, but no bright yellow stripe.
Segment 2 has a wide oval stripe, narrowing toward center, slightly interrupted or not.
Segment 3 stripe wider at side edges, narrowing and interrupted or not at center.
Segment 4 stripe is narrower, slightly interrupted at center or not; notched on lower margin.
Segment 5 has square patch in center, usually with a yellow spot or crescent at each side edge and lower margin of segments is fringed with silvery hairs.
Abdomen tip squared (not lobed) with silver hairs and longer, brownish hair tuft at each side, curving toward middle of segment.
Underside of segments red; 3 to 5 with yellow spots or streaks.

Male:
Head: Reddish-brown with very short and thin, whitish hair; lower face (clypeus) yellow with lighter yellow up inner eye margin to antenna bases, hair more dense. Yellow spot under and between antenna bases. Cheeks narrower than eye width, red with very narrow, black border. Mandibles large, not toothed.
Antenna: Base (scape) very swollen, reddish-brown on top side, yellow on underside. Segments on top side dark brownish-yellow on base half, rest light red, tip even lighter; underside light red. Segment 1 much shorter than 2.
Thorax: Reddish-brown with scant yellowish hair. Collar stripe very narrow, yellow, widely interrupted at center. Segment 1 (scutum) has narrow black median line. Segment 2 (scutellum) deeply indented along mid-line, the two knobs reddish. Segment 3 (propodeum) black with 4 faint, small light yellow marks, 2 on each side edge and may be joined; white hairs on side edges. Note: Yellow spots more so in western populations, eastern populations may have none. Thorax sides have some black areas, all covered with dense whitish hair. Tubercles yellow, another small yellow spot above mid legs. Underside has dense white hairs.
Wings: Wing knobs (tegulae) brownish-yellow. Wings base light, rest darkly tinted, tips darker. Veins and stigma brownish-yellow.
Legs: Legs largely reddish-yellow with yellowish streaks on underside; front leg somewhat lighter.
Abdomen: Reddish-brown. Yellow stripes along base margin (on 2 to 4) of segments, not interrupted at center.
Segment 1 darker red to blackish. May have faint light reddish stripe, changing to yellow at sides, but not a bright yellow stripe.
Segment 2 wide oval stripe, narrowing toward center.
Segment 3 stripe wider at side edges, narrowing.
Segment 4 stripe is narrower.
Segments 5 and 6 stripes entire, may not reach side edges; stripes positioned at mid segment, not base.
Abdomen tip very wide, distinctly notched with long pale hair.
Underside reddish-brown, 3 to 6 with yellow marks.
Range
Virginia north to Massachusetts, west to Ontario and Kansas.
Habitat
Forest edges and meadows.
Season
Late May to early June in north.
Food
Adults feed on nectar and pollen.
Larvae are parasites of Mining Bees Andrena species.
Remarks
Types:
Holotype male by Cockerell, 1903; #2174 and #13159. Locality: Canada (from Baker collection). In U.S. National Museum, Smithsonian - photos.
Holotype female as Nomada (Xanthidium) pseudops by Cockerell, 1905 #0000107. Locality: Wisconsin by Graenicher Jun 8, 1903. In University of Colorado Museum.
Internet References
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 1903 Aug: North American Bees of the Genus Nomada by Cockerell, pg. 607.
The Canadian Entomologist, 1905, Vol. 37, pp. 189 to 190 by Cockerell.
North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin, 1962, No. 152. 1962 Bees of the Eastern United States by Mitchell.
Zootaxa, 2010, #2661 New synonymies Nomada from North America by Droege, Sheffield, et al. pp. 6 to 8, also photos.