Identification, Images, & Information
For Insects, Spiders & Their Kin
For the United States & Canada
Clickable Guide
Moths Butterflies Flies Caterpillars Flies Dragonflies Flies Mantids Cockroaches Bees and Wasps Walkingsticks Earwigs Ants Termites Hoppers and Kin Hoppers and Kin Beetles True Bugs Fleas Grasshoppers and Kin Ticks Spiders Scorpions Centipedes Millipedes



theralis complex

Zanclognatha - Zanclognatha n-sp #Hodges #8354.99  - Florida Zanclognatha - Zanclognatha sp. - Zanclognatha n-sp Z. lituralis? - Zanclognatha Unknown Moth - Zanclognatha Hodges #8354.97 - Zanclognatha n.sp. - Zanclognatha n-sp unknown moth - Zanclognatha Zanclognatha theralis Zanclognatha theralis
Show images of: caterpillars · adults · both
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Lepidoptera (Butterflies and Moths)
Superfamily Noctuoidea (Owlet Moths and kin)
Family Erebidae
Subfamily Herminiinae (Litter Moths)
Genus Zanclognatha
No Taxon theralis complex
Explanation of Names
The total number of valid species in the Zanclognatha theralis complex is unknown.(1) This complex includes the following taxa:
Zanclognatha theralis (Walker, 1859) - TL: NS *
Zanclognatha deceptricalis Zeller, 1873 - TL: OH *
Zanclognatha gypsalis (Grote, 1880) - TL: NC *
Zanclognatha inconspicualis (Grote, 1883) - TL: Adirondacks, NY *
Zanclognatha minoralis Smith, 1895 - TL: Long Island, NY †
Zanclognatha minoralis of authors not Smith, 1895 †
Only Zanclognatha theralis and Zanclognatha minoralis of authors not Smith, 1895 are currently listed as valid species. From Lafontaine and Schmidt (pers. comm., 10/10/2017):
"All the other names could be valid species, or synonyms of theralis, or some valid and some synonyms. The barcodes and the genitalia are definitely inconclusive, so it may take other gene systems or larval characters to resolve the issue, and that will take years! What is most commonly called Z. minoralis in collections, as you say, is the taxon that is abundant from Georgia to Florida to Texas and in series, and we have a long series, nothing really stands out to suspect multiple species being in there. Most specimens from eastern Canada are typical theralis (Type locality Nova Scotia), so the problems are mostly in eastern US between Canada and the southeast. There is a huge array of variability and forms with specimens matching characters for all names, but also switching up character combinations, even at a single locality on the same night – as Bo Sullivan’s catches show repeatedly.
So, “minoralis” as it is generally known from the southeast is a minoralis of authors and none match the type specimen..."

* Z. deceptricalis, gypsalis and inconspicualis are treated as synonyms of theralis by Lafontaine & Schmidt (2010). (2)
Zanclognatha minoralis of authors not Smith, 1895 refers to some specimens from southeastern US thought to be Z. minoralis, a species removed from the list in Lafontaine & Schmidt (2010) because the identity of the type specimen could not be confirmed. (2) "There is not really any good match for the minoralis type (said to be from Long Island) on the tree, but a "theralis" from NC from Bo Sullivan (attached) is quite a good match." - Lafontaine and Schmidt (pers. comm. 10/7/2017)
(Steve Nanz - 10/10/2017)
Print References
Smith, J.B. 1895. Contributions toward a monograph of the insects of the lepidopterous family Noctuidae of boreal North America. A Revision of the deltoid moths. Bulletin of the United States National Museum. 48: 34; pl. 2, fig, 6. (Zanclognatha minoralis)
Works Cited
1.A new Zanclognatha from eastern North America and a preliminary key to the larvae of the genus...
Wagner, D.L. & T.L. McCabe. 2011. ZooKeys 149: 89-101.
2.Annotated check list of the Noctuoidea (Insecta, Lepidoptera) of North America north of Mexico.
Donald J. Lafontaine, B. Christian Schmidt. 2010. ZooKeys 40: 1–239 .