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Family Flatidae - Flatid Planthoppers

Citrus Flatid Planthopper - Metcalfa pruinosa Nymph - Siphanta acuta Tall Hopper - Cyarda Flatoidinus signatus - Flataloides scabrosus Flataloides scabrosus (Melichar) - Flataloides scabrosus Flatormenis proxima? - Flatormenis proxima what am I? - Ormenoides venusta Fulgoroid - Flatoidinus punctatus
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Hemiptera (True Bugs, Cicadas, Hoppers, Aphids and Allies)
Suborder Auchenorrhyncha (True Hoppers)
Infraorder Fulgoromorpha (Planthoppers)
Superfamily Fulgoroidea
Family Flatidae (Flatid Planthoppers)
Explanation of Names
Flatidae Spinola 1839
Numbers
27 described spp. in 13 genera in our area, ~1450 spp. in ~300 genera worldwide(1)(2); several species have been reported from the US in error; there are several undescribed spp. from so. US(1)
Identification
readily recognized by the presence of submarginal vein paralleling the wing margin(1)
Nymphs: wax filaments bushy (vs. straight and forming bundles like watercolor paintbrushes in Issidae) --Dr Hamilton

Morphological comparison of described Flatidae north of Mexico, arranged by tribe.

Flatinae: Nephesini
The genera of this tribe, namely Flatormenis, Melormenis, and Ormenaria are arbitrary in their composition (as is the tribe itself).

Flatormenis proxima (Walker, 1851)


Flatormenis saucia (Van Duzee, 1912): appears to be a complex of closely-related entities in the desert southwest.


Melormenis basalis (Walker, 1851): found only in Florida and Hawaii in the U.S.


Metcalfa pruinosa (Say, 1830)


Ormenaria barberi (Van Duzee, 1912): similar to F. proxima, but found only in desert southwest. orange legs; pruinosity often granulate.


Ormenaria rufifascia (Walker, 1851): highly distinctive species found only in FL, SC


Ormenoides venusta (Melichar, 1902)


Petrusa epilepsis (Kirkaldy, 1906): found only in Florida in the U.S.


Flatinae: Selizini
Members of this tribe generally require dissection for species-level determination. There are numerous undescribed genera and species in the U.S.

Cyarda acuminipennis (Spinola, 1839)
[no photos]

Cyarda melichari (Van Duzee, 1907)
[no photos]

Cyarda sordida Fennah, 1965


Mistharnophantia acuta Doering & Shepherd, 1947


Mistharnophantia ajoensia Doering & Shepherd, 1947


Mistharnophantia angusta Doering & Shepherd, 1947
[no photos]

Mistharnophantia extensa Doering & Shepherd, 1947


Mistharnophantia sima Doering & Shepherd, 1947


Mistharnophantia sonorana (Kirkaldy, 1907)
[no photos]

Paradascalia edax (Kirkaldy, 1907): whether or not this species actually does occur in the U.S. is unclear.


Flatinae: Siphantini
A group endemic to the Indomalayan and Australian realms.

Siphanta acuta (Walker, 1851): introduced species on the west coast of the U.S.


Flatoidinae: Flatoidini
These cryptic flatids have the wings held horizontally. The compsition of the genera is largely arbitrary.

Flataloides scabrosus (Melichar, 1902): the most widespread member of this subfamily in the U.S.


Flataloides signatus (Melichar, 1902): it is not entirely clear what this species really is in relation to F. scabrosus and M. fusca. TX endemic.


Flatoides enota Van Duzee, 1923


Flatoidinus punctatus (Walker, 1851): present in the gulf states; diagnostically pointed head


Metcracis fusca (Van Duzee, 1908)


A number of species have seemingly been erroneously reported for the United States including Antillormenis contaminata, Flatoidinus acutus, and Pseudoflatoides tortrix as well as a number of Cyarda species. There are at least seven undescribed or unknown species in the U.S. with a number more likely to be undetected/overlooked in the desert southwest.
Range
worldwide (by far more diverse in the tropics)(3); in our area, most diverse in the south, with only a few widely distributed species in n. US(1)
Habitat
above-ground portions of a wide variety of woody/semi-woody plants(1)
Remarks
Over all, taxonomic revision is needed for most of this family; no comprehensive global revision of the family has ever been done. The subfamilies, tribes, and genera are largely arbitrary.
Internet References