30 segments, head not covered by collum. Eyes present, sometimes reduced. Mentum undivided. Dorsum with large, knobby lateral swellings bearing 2 large setae each. Posterior gonopods inflated and turned dorsad, clearly identifying mature males.
North America, Japan, Chile
Leaf litter, dead wood, caves. Can be found at high altitudes or cool microclimates, such as groves of hemlock, fir, or spruce trees.
Almost all mature specimens are collected between November and April.
Leaf litter, dead wood, fungal hyphae.
Juveniles can be found throughout the year via leaf litter collection, matures are found in the cooler months.
Due to being most active during the colder months, representation of this family in collections is uncommon.