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Species Fenusa pumila - Birch Leafminer

Birch Leafminer - Fenusa pumila - female Fenusa pumila Fenusa pumila Fenusa pumila - Birch Leafminer on Gray Birch - Fenusa pumila Fenusa pumila - Birch Leafminer on Gray Birch - Fenusa pumila Fenusa pumila - Birch Leafminer on Gray Birch - Fenusa pumila Blotch mine on river birch - Fenusa pumila Blotch mine on river birch - Fenusa pumila
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Hymenoptera (Ants, Bees, Wasps and Sawflies)
No Taxon ("Symphyta" - Sawflies, Horntails, and Wood Wasps)
Family Tenthredinidae (Common Sawflies)
Subfamily Heterarthrinae
Tribe Fenusini
Genus Fenusa
Species pumila (Birch Leafminer)
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Fenusa pusilla auct. (the name prevailing in the American literature)
Explanation of Names
Fenusa pumila Leach 1817
Size
avg. BL: ♂ 3.5 mm, ♀ 3.7 mm(1)
Range
native to, and widespread across the Palaearctic, adventive in NA (NF-AB to MD-IA, AK-OR)(1)(2)
Food
hosts: Betula spp.(1); prefers gray birch or gray birch hybrids, also attacks ornamental European white birch and its cut-leaf varieties(3)
Life Cycle
3-4 generation per year; overwinter as prepupae in soil(3)
Remarks
earliest NA record: CT 1923(1)
17 parasitoid spp. are known to attack this species; the ichneumonids Lathrolestes nigricollis and Grypocentrus albipes, and the eulophid Chrysocharis nitetis have been introduced into North America from Europe to control it
Internet References
Species pages: Ellis (2007) (Europe)(4) | Edmunds (2007) (UK)(5) | Pitkin et al. (2007-) (UK)(6)