Other Common Names
The name "Dog Day Cicada" is most often applied in particular to Neotibicen canicularis
. Other common names encountered:
Locusts - a commonly used misnomer (Locusts are "Short-horned" Grasshoppers / Refer to the order Orthoptera)
Katydids - a commonly used misnomer (Katydids are "Long-horned" Grasshoppers / Refer to the order Orthoptera)
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Neotibicen gen. n., Hill and Moulds. Members formerly placed in Tibicen
Explanation of Names
new + Tibicen
, Latin for "flute-player, piper" (2)
12 species in our area, 13 in total.
Neotibicen auriferus (Say, 1825): central U.S.
Neotibicen bermudianus (Verrill, 1902): Bermuda
Neotibicen canicularis (Harris, 1841): eastern and central U.S. except extreme south; southern Canada
Neotibicen davisi (Smith & Grossbeck, 1907): eastern U.S.
Neotibicen latifasciatus (Davis, 1915): coastal southeastern U.S.
Neotibicen linnei (Smith & Grosisbeck, 1907): eastern and central U.S.
Neotibicen lyricen (De Geer, 1773): eastern and central U.S.
Neotibicen pruinosus (Say, 1825): eastern and central U.S.
Neotibicen robinsonianus (Davis, 1922): southeastern U.S.
Neotibicen similaris (Smith & Grossbeck, 1907): southeastern U.S.
Neotibicen superbus (Fitch, 1855): southern central U.S.
Neotibicen tibicen (Linnaeus, 1758): eastern and central U.S.
Neotibicen winnemanna (Davis, 1912): southeastern U.S.
note: there are a number of rather distinct subspecies which some workers may treat as separate species
Below is a list of the North American Tibicen species and "species groupings" per Bill Reynolds.
These groupings are based on the literature, per. observ., per. comm., and reflect shared morphological and behavioral traits used historically to classify these insects. In some cases, the songs also reflect shared origins for several of these "groupings" and have been taken into consideration.
NOTE: Many of the listed common names are informal & are either colloquial or suggested (here on bugguide).
As mentioned, the following information is based on a consensus of the literature, per. comm., and per. research & observation - "NOT SET IN STONE":
"Swamp Cicadas"/"The chloromerus Group"
"Lyric Cicadas"/"The lyricen Group"
* Neotibicen bermudianus [T. bermudiana (Verrill 1902)], "Bermuda Cicada"- EXTINCT
(*Most closely related to T. lyricen, this cicada was endemic to the Bermuda Islands. Sadly, this cicada is now EXTINCT due to habitat and host plant loss. Unfortunately, disease threats to the host plant, Bermuda cedar, Juniperus bermudiana continue to threaten its existence as well.)
"Green Tibicen Species"
Collectively, yet informally, referred to as the "Green Tibicen species" (per. comm.), the following cicadas are often difficult to differentiate and all appear to be very closely related. Genitalic analysis of the males suggest these species are very closely related and morphological differences between and among the species are often slight. It is also thought (based on observations) that several of these may be involved in complex hybrid zones; however, more work is needed to substantiate and better understand these observations.
"Southern Dog-day Cicadas"
Loosely & informally referred to as the "Southern Dog-day Cicadas" ("coined", Bill Reynolds
), the following taxa are mostly "southern" in distribution and appear to be closely related. These cicadas share several traits, incl. elongated opercula in the males, rapid trill and/or clicking calls, and unusually wide heads relative to body dimension (head widths usu. exceed thoracic widths).
*Appears to be the most divergent member within this group (??)