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Species Zanclognatha protumnusalis - Hodges#8349

Possible Wavy-lined Fan-foot - Zanclognatha protumnusalis Zanclognatha protumnusalis Zanclognatha - Zanclognatha protumnusalis Hodges#8349 - Zanclognatha protumnusalis - male Hodges#8349 - Zanclognatha protumnusalis Hodges#8349 - Zanclognatha protumnusalis Phalaenostola ? - Zanclognatha protumnusalis moth - Zanclognatha protumnusalis
Show images of: caterpillars · adults · both
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Lepidoptera (Butterflies and Moths)
Superfamily Noctuoidea (Owlet Moths and kin)
Family Erebidae
Subfamily Herminiinae (Litter Moths)
Genus Zanclognatha
Species protumnusalis (Zanclognatha protumnusalis - Hodges#8349)
Hodges Number
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Zanclognatha protumnusalis (Walker, 1859)
Herminia protumnusalis Walker, 1859 (1)
see genus page for discussion on Zanclognatha vs. Polypogon classification
Zanclognatha minimalis Grote, 1878 - Currently regarded as a synonym of Z. protumnusalis but somewhat intermediate in character between Z. dentata and Z. protumnusalis(2)
Adult: antemedian (AM) and postmedian (PM) lines wavy & jagged - thickened and dark near the costa, but thin and faint across the rest of the wing; bold dark reniform spot; subterminal (ST) line thin & inconspicuous, bordered by darker shading along its length - (this description predates the 2011 paper by Wagner and McCabe which describes Zanclognatha dentata and seems more applicable to that species.(2))
Larvae: See "Preliminary key to Zanclognatha larvae" (2)
eastern US and southeastern Canada
adults fly from July to September
larvae feed on balsam fir, black spruce, white spruce, and jack pine (Ohio State U.)
The type of Zanclognatha minimalis Grote, 1878, currently regarded as a synonym of Zanclognatha protumnusalis (e.g., Franclemont and Todd 1983) (BMNH), is somewhat intermediate in character between Zanclognatha dentata and Zanclognatha protumnusalis. On the whole Zanclognatha minimalis aligns best with the latter, e.g., hindwings of Zanclognatha minimalis are too pale to fit comfortably within Zanclognatha dentata and the discal spot is small, round and almost free of dark scales. However, two features of the type give us pause: (1) the postmedial line is strongly expressed to the inner margin (it is nearly always vague below the cell in Zanclognatha protumnusalis). (2) Likewise the antemedial line is toothed and well expressed to the inner margin, and thus more reminiscent of Zanclognatha dentata.(2)
See Also
Zanclognatha dentata - The postmedial line is often abruptly-angled outward over the radial veins in Zanclognatha dentata, whereas in Zanclognatha protumnusalis and Zanclognatha martha, this part of the postmedial tends to be more evenly rounded. In Zanclognatha protumnusalis the subterminal line is more likely to be outwardly edged with pale scales (in both wings) and Zanclognatha protumnusalis tends to have more tan in the ground color, thinner and crisper costal spots, and lacks the blurry patch of fuscous scales basad of the postmedial line, which extends from the inner margin to the cell, that is present in many Zanclognatha dentata. In most specimens of Zanclognatha protumnusalis the ground color of the hindwings tends to be noticeably paler than that of the forewings, especially through the radial area.(2)
Zanclognatha jacchusalis whose pale yellowish ST line is broad and conspicuous
Zanclognatha martha - Larger with distal 1/4 of wings darker.
Print References
Walker, 1858: 104 (1)
Internet References
Images and Info (Moth Photographer's Group)
Images and Info (Barcoding Life)
Works Cited
1.List of the Specimens of Lepidopterous Insects in the Collection of the British Museum
Walker, F. 1858. List Spec. Lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus. Vol. 16-18.
2.A new Zanclognatha from eastern North America and a preliminary key to the larvae of the genus...
Wagner, D.L. & T.L. McCabe. 2011. ZooKeys 149: 89-101.