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Family Nemestrinidae - Tangle-veined Flies

Bee fly ... - Neorhynchocephalus sackenii Green-eyed fly on Buddleia - Neorhynchocephalus sackenii - female Fly with ovipositor - Neorhynchocephalus sackenii - male - female Tiny bee near ground, foraging on Hedge Parsley - Neorhynchocephalus volaticus Neorhynchocephalus volaticus Red-eyed Fly - Hyrmophlaeba texana Neorhynchocephalus - Tangle-veined fly - Neorhynchocephalus volaticus Neorhynchocephalus sackenii ? - Neorhynchocephalus sackenii - female
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Diptera (Flies)
No Taxon (Orthorrhapha)
Family Nemestrinidae (Tangle-veined Flies)
Explanation of Names
Nemestrinidae Griffith & Pidgeon 1832
Numbers
6 spp. in 3 genera in our area(1), 300 spp. in 26 genera total(2)
Size
Our spp. 7-14 mm(1)
Identification
Bee-like appearance and loud buzz. Bristles lacking but body is covered with hair-like setae. Branches of the medial vein join before the apical margin and end toward the front margin of the wing before the apex.

Male eyes holoptic in male, with differentiated facets, eyes densely pilose or bare, ocelli usually well developed, antennae with stylus composed of 3 flagellomeres, first flagellomere oval or conical, face flat to slightly convex, proboscis vestigial or developed, if long, at rest often tucked between coxae.
Postpronota small and hidden, postalar callus strong, sutellum short and broad with submarginal groove, subscutellum often present sometimes large.
Legs rather slender and hairy, first tarsomere of each leg long, tibiae without spurs, empodia and pulvilli sometimes very small, former pulvilliform.
Wing branches of R and M more or less converging to apex of wing; branches of M curving forward and ending before or scarcely behind apex of wing, and with a composite 'diagonal vein' running from distal end of cell br to posterior margin of wing, four branches of R, M1, M2, and M3 present, cell d closed, CuA2 free or meeting A1 in an acute angle near wing margin, alula poorly or well developed, calypters normal.
Range
s. & w. US; BC(1); most diverse and common in sw. US
Habitat
Adults frequent flowers
Life Cycle
Most are endoparasitoids of grasshoppers(1), Hirmoneurinae parasitize scarab beetles(3)
Remarks
Rare in NA. Some are considered important in the control of grasshopper populations.
Print References
Bequaert J. (1930) Notes on American Nemestrinidae. Psyche 37:286-298 (Full text)
Bequaert J. (1934) Notes on American Nemestrinidae, second paper. J. New York Ent. Soc. 42: 163-184 (First page)