male ventrite 5 with pale apical border, except in P. cookii(1)
; generally, diminutive, early flying, single-flashing
fireflies found along forest edges and roadside hedges, and over sheltered lawns in isolated colonies(4)
- ne US + AL-MS (Lloyd didn't survey w. Gulf states (4)
), flash while hovering, avg male flash interval 2.9s
curtatus - NY to OK & SD, morphology, genitalia, distribution and male flash interval matched those of marginellus
- FL-GA (6)
, avg male flash intervals of 3.5 seconds
sabulosus - NY-IL-TN-NC, avg male flash intervals of 3.8 seconds
texanus - w. to c. TX, most similar to marginellus
- one record from c. TX (Gillespie Co.(1)
acuminatus - NC, FL, very rare
cookii - scattered se US records, non-luminous, very rare
22 described spp. by 1966(4)
; identification of single spmns via morphology alone often impossible(4)
Remarkably, the behavioral affinities noted by Lloyd(4)
parallel the morphological relationships determined by Green(1)
male ventrite 5 with pale apical border(1)
, except in Ph. concisus(7)
; usually in woodland borders but pyralis
can be ubiquitous(4)
flash signals are either of the simple "flash-answer" type
as in Div. I and some other Div. II spp., or of the "flash-delay-answer" type
found in other members of Div. II(4)
pyralis - e US (TX-FL-NY-NE), absent along s. Atlantic coast, found in var. habitats, male flash-pattern is a single long flash emitted during flight that resembles the letter J.
australis - se US (MO-FL-NC), nearly always confined to shaded areas and dense bushes, quick short flash every ~4 secs.
scintillans - ne US (NY-PA-MD area), females brachypterous, males give quick flash every ~2.5s
punctatus Group: use simple flash-answer signals w/ short female delay times, group is se US in distribution; females brachypterous, except in umbratus
brimleyi - e OK to w NC, avg male flash interval of 1.2s
- c IL to ne KS, (also s OK & ne TX, but little surveys by Lloyd across se US(4)
), avg male flash interval of 1 second.
tenuicinctus - sw Ozark Mtns (ne OK-nw AR), males w/ single sharp pules or bimodal w/ second mode slightly more intense than the 1st, avg interval of 1.7s
umbratus - coastal areas LA-FL-NC, flash pattern, a single long flash, emitted during a dipping gesture similar to pyralus (which is absent from the s. Atlantic coast), avg. flash interval was 6.8 seconds.
collustrans - FL-GA, flash is single pulse emitted while flying lateral arcs, avg flash interval was 2.3s
- FL endemic(6)
, sister to collustrans
granulatus - s Great Plains (e KS to e TX, sw AR), single flash w/ avg interval of 1.3s
dimissus - s OK to s TX, bright twinkling flash as if bimodal, intervals of about 1s
stellaris - w to c TX, all black elytra, pronotum lacks black spot or stripe
; flashes varied and complex, multi-pulsed with long time delays, no sp. has the simple flash-answer signal discussed previously. some spp. morphologically indistinguishable.
knulli - s. AZ
indictus - e US, except e. of Appalachia, non-luminous, may be a marsh sp.
lineellus - mostly FL peninsula, 1-3 very short flashes at 2-3s intervals
ignitus - mostly New England, very short flash at 5s intervals
consanguineus (complex) - e. US mostly e of Appalachia, two quick pulses, flash interval of 5.5 seconds
macdernotti - second sp. of the consanguineus (complex), e US (as above), two quick pulses, upward flight during second pulse, interval betw. flash pattern was 2s
ardens Group: females winged, as w/ previous group, the signals of the ardens group are complex and involve multi-pulse flash patterns and time delays.
consimilis (complex) - e US, highest density in FL, flash pattern: 4-9 quick pulses with an avg flash interval of 10.6 seconds, or 2 or 3 slow pulses with a 12.4s interval.
carolinus - mostly in Smokey Mtns, avg flash-pattern interval 13.8 seconds
ardens - ME to the Dakotas, 2 or 3 fast pulses while flying horizontally, avg 6.4s between flash sets