Identification, Images, & Information
For Insects, Spiders & Their Kin
For the United States & Canada
Clickable Guide
Moths Butterflies Flies Caterpillars Flies Dragonflies Flies Mantids Cockroaches Bees and Wasps Walkingsticks Earwigs Ants Termites Hoppers and Kin Hoppers and Kin Beetles True Bugs Fleas Grasshoppers and Kin Ticks Spiders Scorpions Centipedes Millipedes

Calendar
Upcoming Events

Discussion, insects and people from the 2018 BugGuide Gathering in Virginia, July 27-29

Photos of insects and people from the 2015 gathering in Wisconsin, July 10-12

Photos of insects and people from the 2014 gathering in Virginia, June 4-7.

Photos of insects and people from the 2013 gathering in Arizona, July 25-28

Photos of insects and people from the 2012 gathering in Alabama

Photos of insects and people from the 2011 gathering in Iowa

Photos from the 2010 Workshop in Grinnell, Iowa

Photos from the 2009 gathering in Washington

TaxonomyBrowse
Info
ImagesLinksBooksData

Suborder Dyspnoi

harvestman - Nemastoma bimaculatum Harvestman - Dendrolasma mirabile Harvestman - Trogulus tricarinatus Ceratolasma tricantha - male Sabacon of Wahkiakum - Sabacon Taracus - Taracus ubicki
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Chelicerata (Chelicerates)
Class Arachnida (Arachnids)
Order Opiliones (Harvestmen)
Suborder Dyspnoi
Numbers
~ 280 species worldwide
Identification
A morphologically heterogeneous group of harvestmen. Legs longer than compact body, coloration typically black or grayish (unlike many Eupnoi which are often orange/brown). Pedipalps without capture spines or terminal claws.

Chelicerae with diaphanous teeth, but this feature is difficult to see without a high-magnification microscope.
Habitat
US + Canadian Dyspnoi are reclusive predators, almost always found in forested upland habitats under rocks and/or logs, in leaf litter, or in caves. Several taxa seem to have an affinity for stream-side or riparian habitats (e.g., Acuclavella, Appalachian Sabacon, Acropsopilio). Unlike Eupnoi, it is rare to find Dyspnoi species "exposed" or wandering on the surface. Find Dyspnoi by searching under rocks and/or logs, by sifting leaf litter, or by using a Berlese funnel.
Remarks
Dyspnoi is separated into 3 well-supported subgroups, including Ischyropsalidoidea, Troguloidea, and Acropsopilionoidea
Print References
Groh, S. & Giribet, G. (2015), Polyphyly of Caddoidea, reinstatement of the family Acropsopilionidae in Dyspnoi, and a revised classification system of Palpatores (Arachnida, Opiliones). Cladistics, 31: 277–290. doi:10.1111/cla.12087 (online PDF)

Gruber, J. 2007. Dyspnoi - Historical systematic synopsis. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado, G. Giribet., eds. Harvestmen: the biology of Opiliones. Harvard University Press, Cambridge

Schönhofer AL. 2013. A taxonomic catalogue of the Dyspnoi Hansen and Sørensen, 1904 (Arachnida: Opiliones). Zootaxa 3679, 1-68. (online PDF)
Internet References