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Subfamily Dynastinae - Rhinoceros Beetles

Tomarus gibbosus?? - Tomarus gibbosus ID please - Tomarus gibbosus Phileurus valgus (Linnaeus) - Phileurus valgus Scarab - Cyclocephala Rutelinae? - Cyclocephala Tomarus gibbosus Male, Orizabus ligyroides? - Orizabus ligyroides - male Male, Orizabus ligyroides? - Orizabus ligyroides - male
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Coleoptera (Beetles)
Suborder Polyphaga (Water, Rove, Scarab, Long-horned, Leaf and Snout Beetles)
Superfamily Scarabaeoidea (Scarab, Stag and Bess Beetles)
Family Scarabaeidae (Scarab Beetles)
Subfamily Dynastinae (Rhinoceros Beetles)
Explanation of Names
Author of subfamily is MacLeay 1819, or, depending on the rules of nomenclature, Kirby 1825 (1). Named after the genus Dynastes.
Identification
Robust, often large scarabs, a few groups of spectacular size. Dorsal surface in most groups rounded and several groups have horns. Typical characters:
mandibles expanded, leaflike, usually visible from above, often notched or toothed
labrum hidden beneath clypeus
antennae with 9-10 segments, last three segments usually forming a small club
claws of middle and rear tarsi simple, usually similar in size
apex (end) of posterior (and/or middle?) tibia with two prominent spurs


Tribe Cyclocephalini: both sexes unarmed, males typically with large front claws, either yellowish or black

Tribe Pentodontini: both sexes unarmed, pronotum often with distinct apical depression, hind tibia with apical edge truncate, black or brown

Tribe Oryctini: males armed, large, brown

Tribe Phileurini: distinctly flattened, generally black, head often with horns or tubercles

Tribe Dynastini: large, sexual dimorphism obvious
Print References
Harpootlian, subfamily characteristics p. 11, description and key to tribes pp. 104-105 (1)
White, Field Guide to the Beetles (2)
Dillon, key to scarab subfamilies, p. 506 (3)
Endrödi, S. 1985. The Dynastinae of the World. Series Entomologica, Volume 28, W. Junk, Dordrecht. 800 pp., 46 plates.
Ratcliffe & Cave (4)
Internet References
Ratcliffe (2001), Generic Guide to New World Scarab Beetles--description of subfamily Dynastinae
Works Cited
1.Scarab beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) of South Carolina
Phillip J. Harpootlian. 2001. Clemson University Public Service.
2.Peterson Field Guides: Beetles
Richard E. White. 1983. Houghton Mifflin Company.
3.A Manual of Common Beetles of Eastern North America
Dillon, Elizabeth S., and Dillon, Lawrence. 1961. Row, Peterson, and Company.
4.The Dynastine Scarab Beetles of the USA and Canada (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae)
Brett C. Ratcliffe & Ronald D. Cave. 2017. University of Nebraska State Museum, Vol 30, 298 pp.