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Superfamily Coccoidea - Scales and Mealybugs

Scales ? scale insects - Kuwanaspis Female cyst shaken from needle, lateral - Pityococcus rugulosus - female Early male pupa, Specimen 2, glycerin treated, lateral - Pityococcus rugulosus - male Mealybug Tuliptree Scale? Male, Puto? - Puto - male Magnolia Scale?
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Hemiptera (True Bugs, Cicadas, Hoppers, Aphids and Allies)
Suborder Sternorrhyncha (Plant-parasitic Hemipterans)
Superfamily Coccoidea (Scales and Mealybugs)
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
summary of classification and relationships of higher taxa in (1)
~1100 spp. in ~250 genera of 28 families in our area; >8,400 spp. in ~1,180 genera of 36 families worldwide(2)
Males winged, females wingless. Adult females have no appendages or they are atrophied resulting in a scale-like or gall-like body covered in a layer of wax in the form of powder, tufts or plates.
key to families in (3) • keys to quarantine spp. in (4)(5)(6)
knowing food plant helps identification greatly
Parasitic on plants, tend to be host-specific. Symbiotic proteobacteria Tremblaya principes and Moranella endobia help providing the insect with amino acids.(7)
Life Cycle
Most start as free-moving crawlers, with the females becoming less mobile as they mature. In most groups, the females attach to a single spot and lose legs, antennae, etc., and begin to look more like some kind of growth. Both mobile and non-mobile types develop thick protective layers of wax or other inert substances, often in elaborate shapes. The female lays eggs often in a large sac hidden under her own protective covering; the crawlers hatch to move on to new feeding sites. The last 2 larval stages do not feed.(7)
Adult males rarely noticed, look somewhat like winged aphids:
Most gain the protection of ants by secreting a honeydew. Normally only a minor pest (mostly as disease vector), but non-native species can build up to devastating numbers. Some of the earliest and most successful uses of biocontrol have been against this group.
See Also
Whiteflies undergo a similar legless, attached stage as nymphs, but then both males and females develop into winged adults.
Works Cited
1.Phylogeny and higher classification of the scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea)
Gullan P.J., Cook L.G. 2007. Zootaxa 1668: 413–425.
3.An annotated key to the families of scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea) of America, North of Mexico...
Howell J.O., Williams M.L. 1976. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 69: 181‒189.
4.Miller D., Rung A., Parikh G., Venable G., Redford A.J., Evans G.A., Gill R.J. (2014) Scale Insects, 2nd ed.
5.The Scale Insects of California. Parts 1-3.
Raymond J. Gill. 1988. Sacramento, Calif. : Analysis and Identification Branch, Division of Plant Industry, California Dept. of Food and Agriculture.
6.The Soft Scale Insects of Florida (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae)
Avas B. Hamon and Michael L. Williams. 1984. Florid Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry.
7.The Insects : Structure and Function
R. F. Chapman. 1998. Cambridge University Press.