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Family Riodinidae - Metalmarks

Calephelis virginiensis - female Checkerspot sp. - Apodemia nais - female Palmer's Metalmark - Plesioarida palmerii Red-bordered Pixie - Melanis pixe Palmer's Metalmark - Plesioarida palmerii Behr's metalmark - Apodemia mormo Worn Calephelis nemesis - Calephelis nemesis Apodemia mormo - Apodemia mejicanus
Show images of: caterpillars · adults · both
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Lepidoptera (Butterflies and Moths)
Superfamily Papilionoidea (Butterflies and Skippers)
Family Riodinidae (Metalmarks)
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Closely related to family Lycaenidae, and commonly placed within that family as a subfamily Riodininae. By American authors, more often listed as a full family, including: Opler & Warren, Layberry et al., Brock & Kaufman, Jon Pelham, Butterflies of America web site, etc.
Explanation of Names
The common name refers to the brilliant metallic markings of many members of the family.
About 1400 species worldwide (Layberry et al.) 29 species in North America (1), with the highest diversity in the extreme south (Brock and Kaufman).
Occur on most continents, but highest diversity is in the Neotropics.
Print References
Brock and Kaufman's Butterflies of North America (2)
Hall, J.P.W. & Harvey, D. J. (2002). A survey of androconial organs in the Riodinidae (Lepidoptera). Zool. Journ. of the Linnean Soc., 136: 171-197 (Full Text)
Works Cited
1.Annotated taxonomic checklist of the Lepidoptera of North America, North of Mexico
Pohl, G.R., Patterson, B., & Pelham, J.P. 2016.
2.Butterflies of North America (Kaufman Focus Guides)
Jim P. Brock, Kenn Kaufman. 2003. Houghton Mifflin Co.