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Family Riodinidae - Metalmarks

Little Metalmark - Calephelis virginiensis - female Red-bordered Metalmark - Caria ino - female Nais Metalmark? - Apodemia nais Zela Metalmark - Emesis zela - male Zela Metalmark - Emesis zela - male Metalmark Medley - Apodemia virgulti Worn Calephelis nemesis - Calephelis nemesis Calephelis nemesis
Show images of: caterpillars · adults · both
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Lepidoptera (Butterflies and Moths)
Superfamily Papilionoidea (Butterflies and Skippers)
Family Riodinidae (Metalmarks)
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Closely related to family Lycaenidae, and commonly placed within that family as a subfamily Riodininae. By American authors, more often listed as a full family, including: Opler & Warren, Layberry et al., Brock & Kaufman, Jon Pelham, Butterflies of America web site, etc.
Explanation of Names
The common name refers to the brilliant metallic markings of many members of the family.
Numbers
About 1400 species worldwide (Layberry et al.) 29 species in North America (1), with the highest diversity in the extreme south (Brock and Kaufman).
Range
Occur on most continents, but highest diversity is in the Neotropics.
Print References
Brock and Kaufman's Butterflies of North America (2)
Hall, J.P.W. & Harvey, D. J. (2002). A survey of androconial organs in the Riodinidae (Lepidoptera). Zool. Journ. of the Linnean Soc., 136: 171-197 (Full Text)
Works Cited
1.Annotated taxonomic checklist of the Lepidoptera of North America, North of Mexico
Pohl, G.R., Patterson, B., & Pelham, J.P. 2016. ResearchGate.net.
2.Butterflies of North America (Kaufman Focus Guides)
Jim P. Brock, Kenn Kaufman. 2003. Houghton Mifflin Co.