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Genus Chrysopa - Stink Lacewings

Chrysopa nigricornis ? - Chrysopa nigricornis Unknown Lacewing? - Chrysopa oculata Golden-eyed Lacewing - Chrysopa oculata lacewing larva - Chrysopa oculata green lace wing - Chrysopa oculata Chrysopa oculata green lacewing - Chrysopa oculata Chrysopa quadripunctata - Chrysopa
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Neuroptera (Antlions, Lacewings, and Allies)
Suborder Hemerobiiformia (Lacewings and Allies)
Family Chrysopidae (Green Lacewings)
Subfamily Chrysopinae (Typical Green Lacewings)
Tribe Chrysopini
Genus Chrysopa (Stink Lacewings)
Other Common Names
Stinkfly Lacewings
Stinkflies
Stink Lacewings
Stinky Lacewings
Malodorous Lacewings
Explanation of Names
Chrysopa Leach in Brewster 1815
from the Latin chrys-, after the ancient Greek χρυσός‎, ('gold') + ōps ('face'), seemingly referring to the typically golden eyes found in green lacewings
used as the roots chrysop- and -chrysa for other members of its family
Numbers
10 spp. in our area(1)(2), 12 in North America(3); ~53 spp. across the Holarctic(2)

1. Chrysopa chi Fitch, 1855: widespread northern (Canada: AB, BC, MB, NS, ON, QC, SK; United States: DC, MD, ME, MN, NJ, NH, NY, TN, WA, WI)
2. Chrysopa coloradensis Banks, 1895: western (Canada: BC; United States: AZ, CA, CO, ID, NM, OR, UT, WA)
3. Chrysopa excepta Banks, 1911: western (Canada: AB, BC; United States: NM, UT, WY)
4. Chrysopa incompleta Banks, 1911: eastern (FL, GA, IN, MA, MD, NC, NJ, TX, VA, WI)
5. Chrysopa nigricornis Burmeister, 1839: widespread (Canada: AB, BC, ON, QC; United States: CA, CO, DC, IN, KS, MA, MD, ME, MN, MO, NC, NM, NY, OH, RI, TN, TX, VA, WI)
6. Chrysopa oculata Say, 1839: widespread (Canada: AB, BC, MB, NF, NS, ON, QC, SK; United States: AZ, CO, DC, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, LA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OR, PA, TN, TX, VA, WI)
7. Chrysopa pleuralis Banks, 1911: western (Canada: AB, BC; United States: CO, MT, UT, WY)
8. Chrysopa quadripunctata Burmeister, 1839: widespread eastern US (Canada: BC; United States: DC, IL, IN, KS, MD, MN, MO, NC, NJ, NY, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WI)
9. Chrysopa slossonae Banks, 1924: eastern (NC, NH, NY, VA; additional records possible in GA, ME, MD, WV(4))
10. Chrysopa timberlakei Penny, Tauber & de Leon, 2000: southwestern (CA)(2)
Identification
Many species of Chrysopa are recognizable for their distinctive, often intricate, facial and body markings. Wing venation of C. nigricornis (note cell im is overlapped by cell r2 in this genus):


Overview of Adults
Key to North American species in Tauber & Leon (2000).(2)


Chrysopa chi: antennae with green scapes, dark pedicel, and entirely pale flagellum; head with a broad black X mark between the antennal bases, additional black spots above and below; pronotum with 4 black lateral spots on each side; mesothorax with 2 spots on each side


Chrysopa coloradensis: antennae with scapes yellowish, dark pedicel, flagellum with basal third dark; head with black loops under antennal bases, genae with thick black stripe, and dark marks at the lateral grooves of the vertex; pronotum and mesothorax with reddish-brown stripe on each side


Chrysopa excepta: antennae with scapes yellow-green, dark pedicel, flagellum with basal third dark; head with very thin rungs around the antennal bases, thin black stripes on the genae, and small black marks at the lateral grooves of the vertex; thorax unmarked


Chrysopa incompleta: antennae with scapes, pedicel, and flagellum entirely pale; head with broad black ω mark under the antennal bases, broad black lateral stripes on vertex; pronotum with 4 broad black spots (occasionally confluent)


Chrysopa nigricornis: eastern form - antennae with scapes green; head with frons unmarked, clypeus with small spot on each side; pronotum with a single small dark spot on each side at anterior; rest of body entirely unmarked. western form - antennae with scapes green, pedicel pale, flagellum entirely pale; head with genae with a second dark spot


Chrysopa oculata: antennae with pale scapes often with a red ring, dark pedicel, and entirely pale flagellum; head with broad black ω mark under the antennal bases, reddish triangular mark above, vertex golden and variably marked (no markings, four spots, or confluent stripes), genae with broad, vertical red stripes on each side; pronotum with a series of small spots on each side


Chrysopa pleuralis: marked as in C. oculata but head with additional stripe along the lateral grooves, facial markings comparable but often darker and more extensive


Chrysopa quadripunctata: antennae with scapes, pedicel, and flagellum entirely pale; head with reddish stripe on genae; body with yellow median stripe bordered by orange-to-reddish spots (often two pairs on the pronotum, two pairs on the mesothorax, and about four pairs on the abdomen); costal cells above the origin of the radial sector at most 2x as long as wide; pronotum and mesothorax with reddish-brown stripe on each side

-no photo-
Chrysopa slossonae: marked as in C. quadripunctata but costalal cells above the origin of the radial sector 3x as long as wide

Chrysopa timberlakei: antennae with pale scapes with a dark spot on the inner surface, dark pedicel, and entirely pale flagellum; head with black loops around the antennal bases, a connected black stripe along the lateral grooves of the vertex, red lateral stripes on the vertex, and black stripe on the genae;


Overview of Larvae
Key to most eastern species in Smith (1922).(5) Additional notes on C. slossonae by Tauber et al. (1995)(6) and on C. timberlakei by Tauber & Leon (2000).(2) Not included in the present overview: C. coloradensis, C. excepta, C. incompleta, and C. pleuralis.


Chrysopa chi: head capsule with 3 spots; first 2 lateral thoracic tubercles pale, 3rd dark; first abdominal segment with small lateral tubercles; all abdominal tubercles pale and forming a distinct border


Chrysopa nigricornis: head capsule with 3 spots; first 2 lateral thoracic tubercles pale, 3rd dark; first abdominal segment lacking lateral tubercles; abdominal tubercles pale but often tinged with red


Chrysopa oculata: head capsule with 3 spots; all lateral thoracic tubercles pale; first abdominal segment lacking lateral tubercles; first set of lateral tubercles dark, all following pale but marked with red above; body extensively mottled dark and pale of varying intensity


Chrysopa quadripunctata: head capsule with 4 narrow marks, middle 2 forming an unjoined V; all lateral tubercles pale; first abdominal segment lacking tubercles; body primarily pale with brown markings forming narrow, loose stripes; incidental debris-carrying generalist

-lateral photo in Tauber et al. (2014), Fig. 2F(7)-
Chrysopa slossonae: similar to that of C. quadripunctata; thicker markings on the head capsule; head wider; mandibles wider; debris-carrying specialist on woolly alder aphids

-no photo-
Chrysopa timberlakei: head with 4 brown marks, middle 2 forming a V and margining a lighter brown medial spot; all lateral tubercles pale above but reddish-brown below; first abdominal segment lacking tubercles; prothorax with 3 mottled stripes, abdomen mottled cream and reddish-brown
Range
Holartic(3); throughout NA(1)
Works Cited
1.Species catalog of the Neuroptera, Megaloptera, and Raphidioptera of America North of Mexico
Penny N.D., Adams P.A., Stange L.A. 1997. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 50: 39-114.
2.A new species of Chrysopa from western North America with a key to North American species (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)
Penny ND, Tauber C., Leon, T.de. 2000. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 93, 776–784.
3.Kymachrysa, a new genus of Nearctic green lacewings (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae, Chrysopini)
Tauber C.A., Garland J.A. 2014. ZooKeys 437: 87-108.
4.Annotated Checklist of the Neuropterida of Virginia (Arthropoda: Insecta)
Oliver S. Flint, Jr. 2015. Banisteria, number 45, pages 3-47.
5.The Biology of the Chrysopidae
Roger Cletus Smith. 1922. Memoirs of the Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station, 58: 1232-1372.
6.Size and Morphological Differences Among the Larvae of Two Predacious Species and their Hybrids (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)
Catherine A. Tauber, John R. Ruberson, & Maurice J. Tauber. 1995. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 88(4) : 502-511.
7.Debris-Carrying in Larval Chrysopidae: Unraveling Its Evolutionary History
Catherine A. Tauber, Maurice J. Tauber, & Gilberto S. Albuquerque. 2014. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 107(2):295-314.