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Family Pallopteridae - Flutter Flies

Flutter Fly pallopterid - Toxonevra superba pallopterid - Toxonevra superba Fly21 - Toxonevra superba fly 1 - Toxonevra superba Unidentified tiny fly - Toxonevra Pallopteridae (Flutter Fly), lateral - Toxonevra superba Toxonevra superba
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Diptera (Flies)
No Taxon ("Acalyptratae")
Superfamily Tephritoidea
Family Pallopteridae (Flutter Flies)
Other Common Names
Flutter-wing Flies, Pictured-wing Flies, Picture Wing Flies
Explanation of Names
Pallopteridae Loew 1862
Numbers
9 species in our area(1), ~70 spp. in 12 genera total(2)
Size
4-6 mm
Identification
Wings usually conspicuously longer than the abdomen and with dark markings; proboscis short and thick; ovipositor with a non-retractile sheath
Range
Throughout NA and the temperate regions of the world
Habitat
Adults on flowers and low-hanging branches in shady habitats, larvae under bark, and in flower buds and stems
Food
Larvae phytophagous or predaceous on longhorn & bark beetle larvae (Cerambycidae, Curculionidae: Scolytinae)
Print References
Malloch J.R., McAtee W.L. (1924) Keys to flies of the families Lonchaeidae, Pallopteridae, and Sapromyzidae of the eastern United States, with a list of the species of the District of Columbia region. Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 65: 1-26. (Full text)
Johnson C.W. (1921) A Review of the American Species of the Genus Palloptera. Psyche 28(1):20-23. (Link), contains some wing diagrams not present anywhere else
Internet References
Overview (Watson & Dallwitz 2003)(3)